SECULARISATION AS AN INTERNATIONAL CRISIS IN LEGITIMACY

  • Ludwig Gelot University of Gothenburg, Göteborg, Sweden

Abstract

Scholars of International Politics have recently come to grip with the global resurgence of religion. Since the inception of the field of International Politics, the secularisation thesis had been taken for granted and religion dismissed as unimportant. But in line with the current transformation affecting societies worldwide as well as with the re-consideration of the secularisation thesis by Sociologists, new resources must be developed within IR to better understand current events. While theories and concepts have been developed within Sociology and the Political Sciences, no such tools are available in International Politics. Thus, this article provides a tentative theory of secularisation drawing on resources endogenous to the field. Drawing on recent advances in the broadly Constructivist tradition, this article re-interprets secularisation as a protracted international crisis of legitimacy.

Keywords: legitimacy, secularisation, religion, International Politics, Middle Ages

References

Aquinas Thomas, St Thomas Aquinas, Political Writings, R W Dyson (ed.), Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2002.
Augustine, The City of God against the Pagans, R W Dyson (ed.). Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1998.
Bartelson Jens, A Genealogy of Sovereignty, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1995.
Bendix R., Kings or People: Power and the Mandate to Rule, University of California Press, Berkeley, 1978.
Bozeman A., Politics and Culture in International History, Princeton University Press, Princeton, 1960.
Bruce Steve, A House Divided: Protestantism, Schism and Secularization, Routledge, London, 1990.
Bukovansky Mlada, Legitimacy and Power Politics: The American and French Revolutions in International Political Culture, Princeton University Press, Princeton,
2002.
Canning J., A History of Medieval Political Thought, 300-1450, Routledge, New York, 1996.
Casanova Jose, Public Religions in the Modern World, University of Chicago Press, London, 1994.
Chaves Mark, Secularization as Declining Religious Authority, Social Forces, Vol. 72, No. 3, 1994.
Chenu M. D., L’eveil De La Conscience Dans La Civilisation Medievale, Vrin, Paris, 1969.
Collins R., Weberian Sociological Theory, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1986.
Copleston F. C., Aquinas, Penguin, Harmondsworth, 1991.
Dante A., De Monarchia, Moore E and Reade W H V (eds), Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1916.
Demerath N. J., Secularization Disproved or Displaced? In Secularization
and Social Integration: Papers in Honor of Karel Dobbelaere, Laermans R, Wilson B and Billiet J (eds), Leuven University Press, Louvain, 1998
D’Entrèves A. P., The Medieval Contribution to Political Thought: Thomas 102 Reus-Smit Christian, International Crisis of Legitimacy, International Politics, Vol. 44, No.2/3, 2007.
Aquinas, Marsilius of Padua, Richard Hooker, Oxford University Press, London, 1939.
De Wulf Maurice, Philosophy and Civilization in the Middle Ages, Princeton University Press, Princeton , 1922.
Elshtain J. B., Sovereignty: God, State, and Self, Basic Books, New York, 2008.
Figgis J. N., Studies of Political Thought from Gerson to Grotius 1414-1625, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1916.
Hadden Jeffrey, Desacralizing Secularization Theory, In: Secularization and Fundamentalism Reconsidered, Hadden J and Shupe A D (eds), Paragon House, New York, 1989.
Israel Jonathan, Radical Enlightenment: Philosophy and the Making of Modernity, 1650-1750, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2001.
Jevtic Miroljub, Political Science and Religion, Politics and Religion, Vol.1, No.1, 2007.
Kalberg S., Max Weber’s Types of Rationality: Cornerstones for the Analysis of Rationalization Processes in History, American Journal of Sociology, Vol.85, No.5, 1980.
Martin David, The Religious and the Secular: Studies in Secularization, Routledge & Kegan Paul, London, 1969.
Morris C., The Papal Monarchy: The Western Church from 1050 to 1250, Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1989.
Nederman Cary, Medieval Aristotelianism and Its Limits: Classical Traditions in Moral and Political Philosophy, 12th-15th Centuries,Variorum, Aldershot, 1997.
Nelson B. R., Western Political Thought: From Socrates to the Age of Ideology, Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, 1982.
Nelson B., Civilizational Complexes and Intercivilizational Encounters,” In: On the Roads to Modernity: Conscience, Science, and Civilizations: Selected Writings,
Nelson B and Huff T E (eds), Rowman and Littlefield, Totowa, 1981.
Nelson B., Eros, Logos, Nomos, Polis: Shifting Balances of the Structures of Existence, In: On the Roads to Modernity: Conscience, Science, and Civilizations: Selected Writings, Nelson B and Huff T E (eds), Rowman and Littlefield, Totowa, 1981.
Nielsen D. A., Inquisition, Rationalization and Sociocultural Change in Medieval Europe, In: Time, Place, and Circumstance: Neo-Weberian Studies in Comparative
Religious History, Swatos W H (ed.), Greenwood Press, London, 1990.
Oakley Francis, Celestial Hierarchies Revisited: Walter Ullmann’s Vision of Medieval Politics, Past and Present, Vol.60, No.1, 1973.
Padua Marsilius of, The Defender of the Peace, Brett A. S. (ed.), Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2005.
Paris John of, On Royal and Papal Power, Monahan A P (ed.), Columbia University Press, New York, 1974.
Philpot Daniel, Revolutions in Sovereignty: How Ideas Shaped Modern International Relations, Princeton University Press, Oxford, 2001.
Ranitovic Ana, God is Back: how the global revival of faith is changing the world, Politics and Religion, Vol.4, No.1, 2010.
Reus-Smit Christian, International Crisis of Legitimacy, International Politics, Vol.44, No.2/3, 2007.
Reus-Smit Christian, The Moral Purpose of the State: Culture, Social Identity, and Institutional Rationality in International Relations, Princeton University Press,
Princeton, 1999.
Shiner Larry, The Concept of Secularization in Empirical Research, Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, Vol.6, No.2, 1967.
Skinner Quentin, The Foundations of Modern Political Thought: The Age of Reformation. Vol. 2, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1978.
Sorokin Pitirim, The Western Religion and Morality Today. International Yearbook of the Sociology of Religion, Vol.2, 1966.
Stark Rodney, Secularization R.I.P., Sociology of Religion, Vol.60, No.3, 1999.
Strayer J. R., On the Medieval Origins of the Modern State, Princeton University Press, Princeton, 1970.
Swanson R. N., The Twelfth-Century Renaissance, Manchester University Press, Manchester, 1999.
Swatos W H, Losing Faith in The “Religion” Of Secularization: Worldwide Religious Resurgence and the Definition of Religion, In: Religious Politics in Global and Comparative Perspective, Swatos W H (ed.), Greenwood Press, London , 1989.
Taylor Charles, A Secular Age, Belknap, London, 2007.
Tierney B., The Crisis of Church and State, 1050-1300: With Selected Documents, University of Toronto Press, Toronto, 1988.
Trubek D. M., Max Weber on Law and the Rise of Capitalism, In: Max Weber 1, Critical Assessments, Hamilton P (ed.), Routledge, London, 1991.
Ullmann Walter, The Individual and Society in the Middle Ages, Methuen, London, 1967.
Ullmann Walter, Medieval Political Thought, Penguin Books, Harmondsworth, 1975.
Ullmann Walter, Principles of Government and Politics in the Middle Ages, Methuen, London, 1964.
Ullmann Walter, A Short History of the Papacy in the Middle Ages, Methuen, London , 1972.
Vlas Natalia, Is Religion Inherently Violent? Religion as a Threat and Promise for the Global Security, Politics and Religion, Vol.4, No.2, 2010.
Weber Max, The Theory of Social and Economic Organization, Free Press, Glencoe, 1947.
Weber Max, Economy and Society: An Outline of Interpretive Sociology, University of California Press, London, 1968.
Wilks M., The Problem of Sovereignty in the Later Middle Ages: The Papal Monarchy with Augustinus Triumphus and the Publicists, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1963.
Williams Harold, International Relations in Political Theory, Open University Press, Milton Keynes, 1992.
Wilson Bryan, Secularization: The Inherited Model, In: The Sacred in a Secular Age, Hammond P E (ed.), University of California Press, London, 1985.
Wilson Bryan, Religion in Sociological Perspective, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1982.
Wilson Bryan, Religion in the Secular Society: A Sociological Comment, Watts, London, 1966.
Wolin Sheldon, Politics and Vision: Continuity and Innovation in Western Political Thought, Princeton University Press, Princeton, 2004.
Tschannen Oliver, Les Théories De La Sécularisation, Droz, Geneva, 1992.
Tschannen Oliver, The Secularization Paradigm: A Systematization, Journal for the Scienitific Study of Religion, Vol.30, No. 4, 1991.
Dobbelaere Karel, Bryan Wilson’s Contributions to the Study of Secularization, Social Compass, Vol.53, No. 2, 2006.
Dobbelaere Karel, Secularization: A Multi-Dimensional Concept, Current Sociology, Vol.29, No. 2, 1981.
Dobbelaere Karel, Secularization: An Analysis at Three Levels, Peter Lang, Oxford, 2002.
Published
2017-01-10
Section
TOPIC OF THIS ISSUE