RELIGIOUS FUNDAMENTALISM AND DEMOCRACY
This essay deals with religious fundamentalist movements engaged in democratic politics: a phenomenon still not thoroughly analyzed by comparative political science. First of all, it proposes a definition of religious fundamentalism which can be suitable for political science research (connecting the existing theories about fundamentalism to the literature about collective identities and social movements: particularly the political opportunity structure and resource mobilization models). Later, it takes into account four cases of religious fundamentalist movements in democratic regimes: the Christian right in the USA, the sangh parivar in India, the Jewish religious nationalist movement in Israel, and the Islamist movement in Turkey. In this section, the main features of the movements’ mobilization and their political strategies are singled out. The work eventually tries to find out common patterns by comparing the different movements, their relationship with politics, and their impact on public policies. Particularly, it proposes a typology of fundamentalist movements in democracy, according to their political strategies and the ideological orientation of their issues.
Scott (Eds.), The University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1995.
Almond Gabriel A., Sivan Emmanuel and Appleby R. Scott, ‘Politics, Ethnicity, and Fundamentalism’, in: Fundamentalisms Comprehended, Marty Martin E. and
Appleby R. Scott (Eds.), The University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1995.
Almond Gabriel A., Sivan Emmanuel and Appleby R. Scott, Fundamentalism: Genus and Species, in: Fundamentalisms Comprehended, Marty Martin E. and Appleby R. Scott (Eds.), The University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1995.
Ammerman Nancy T., North American Protestant Fundamentalism, in Martin Marty and R. Scott Appleby, (Eds.), Fundamentalisms Observed, The University of
Chicago Press, Chicago, 1991.
Andersen Walter K. and Damle Shridhar D., The Brotherhood in Saffron. The Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh and Hindu Revivalism, Vistaar Publications, Delhi, 1987.
Anderson Benedict, Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origin and the Spread of Nationalism, Verso, London/New York, 1991.
Andolina Molly W. and Wilcox Clyde, Stealth Politics: Religious and Moral Issues in the 2000 Election, in: Piety, Politics and Pluralism. Religion, the Courts, and the 2000 Election, Segers Mary C. (Ed.), Rowman & Littlefield, Lanham, 2002.
Appaiah Parvathy, Hindutva. Ideology and Politics, Deep & Deep, New Delhi, 2003.
Aran Gideon, The Father, the Son and the Holy Land; The Spiritual Authorities of Jewish-Zionist Fundamentalism in Israel, in: Spokesmen for the Despised: Fundamentalist Leaders in the Middle East, Appleby R. Scott (Ed.), The University of Chicago Press, Chicago/London, 1997.
Armstrong Karen, The Battle for God, Ballantine Books, New York, 2001.
Belligni Silvano, Cinque idee di politica, Il Mulino, Bologna, 2003.
Bendyna Mary E. and Wilcox Clyde, The Christian Right Old and New: A Comparison of the Moral Majority and the Christian Coalition, in: Sojourners in the Wilderness: the Christian Right in Comparative Perspective, Smidt Corwin E. and Penning James M. (Eds.), Rowman & Littlefield, Lanham, 1997.
Casanova Jose, Public Religions in the Modern World, University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 2000.
Cizik Richard, interviewed in Frontline: the Jesus Factor, 2004, http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/jesus/interviews/cizik.html
De Tocqueville Alexis, L’ancien régime et la révolution, Michel Lévi Frères, Paris, 1866.
Eisenstadt Shmuel, Fundamentalism, Sectarianism and Revolution, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2000.
Garvey John H., Introduction: Fundamentalism and Politics, in: Fundamentalisms and the State: Remaking Polities, Economies, and Militance, Marty Martin and
Appleby R. Scott (Eds.), The University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1993.
Ghosh Partha S., BJP and the Evolution of Hindu Nationalism. From Periphery to Centre, Manohar, Delhi, 1999.
Gülalp Haldun, Political Islam in Turkey: The Rise and Fall of the Refah Party, The Muslim World, Vol. 89, No. 1, 1999.
Guolo Renzo, Terra e redenzione, Guerini, Milano, 1997.
Hobsbawm Eric J. and Ranger Terence (Eds.), The Invention of Tradition, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1992.
Jaffrelot Christophe, Introduction, in: Sangh Parivar: A Reader, Jaffrelot Christophe (Ed.), Oxford University Press, New Delhi, 2005.
Jaffrelot Christophe, The BJP at the Centre: A Central and Centrist Party?, in Jaffrelot (Ed.), op. cit.
Jaffrelot Christophe, The Hindu Nationalist Movement and Indian Politics (1925 to the 1990s) (London, Hurst & Co., 1996).
Kepel Gilles, Le prophète et pharaon : les mouvements islamistes dans l'Egypte contemporaine, Découverte, Paris, 1984.
Kriesi Hanspeter, Sviluppo organizzativo dei nuovi movimenti sociali e contesto politico, Rivista Italiana di Scienza Politica, Vol. 23, No. 1, 1993.
Lawrence Bruce, Defenders of God, Taurus, London, 1989.
Marsden George, Fundamentalism and American Culture: The Shaping of Twentieth Century Evangelicalism, 1870-1925, Oxford University Press, New York, 1980.
Marty Martin and Appleby R. Scott, Conclusion: Remaking the State: The Limits of the Fundamentalist Imagination, in: Fundamentalisms and the State: Remaking
Polities, Economies, and Militance, Marty Martin and Appleby R. Scott (Eds.), The University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1993.
McCarthy John D. and Zald Mayer N., Resource Mobilization and Social Movements: A Partial Theory, The American Journal of Sociology, Vol. 82, No. 6, 1977.
Moen Matthew C., From Revolution to Evolution: The Changing Nature of the Christian Right, in: The Rapture of Politics. The Christian Right as the United States
Approach the year 2000, Bruce Steve, Kivisto Peter and Swatos William H. (Eds.), Transaction Publishers, New Brunswick/London, 1995.
Moen Matthew C., The Changing Nature of Christian Right Activism: 1970s-1990s, in: Sojourners in the Wilderness: the Christian Right in Comparative Perspective,
Smidt Corwin E. and Penning James M. (Eds.), Rowman & Littlefield, Lanham, 1997.
Nanda Meera, Postmodernism, Hindu nationalism and ‘Vedic science’, Frontline, Vol. 20, No. 26, 2004.
Oldfield Duane Murray, The Right and the Righteous. The Christian Right Confronts the Republican Party, Rowman and Littlefield, Lanham, 1996.
Özdalga Elizabeth, Education in the Name of “Order and Progress”: Reflections on the Recent Eight Year Obligatory School Reform in Turkey, The Muslim World, Vol. 89, No. 3-4, 1999.
Özdalga Elizabeth, The Veiling Issue, Official Secularism and Popular Islam in Modern Turkey, Curzon, Richmond, 1998.
Ozzano Luca, Una prospettiva politologica sul fondamentalismo, Teoria politica, Vol. 23, No. 2, (2007).
Pace Enzo and Guolo Renzo, I fondamentalismi, Laterza, Roma/Bari, 2002.
Pedahzur Ami, The Downfall of the National Camp?, in: Israel at the Polls 1999, Elazar Daniel J. and Ben Mollov M. (Eds.), Frank Cass, London/Portland, 2001.
Ravitzky Aviezer, Messianism, Zionism, and Jewish Religious Radicalism, The University of Chicago Press, Chicago/London, 1996.
Ravitzky Aviezer, Religious Radicalism and Political Messianism in Israel, in Religious Radicalism and Politics in the Middle East, Sivan Emmanuel and Friedman
Menachem (Eds.), State University of New York, Albany, 1990.
Riesebrodt Martin, Pious Passion. The Emergence of Modern Fundamentalism in the United States and Iran, University of California Press, Berkeley/Los Angeles,
Robertson Roland, Globalization: Social Theory and Global Culture, Sage, London/Newbury Park/Delhi, 1992.
Rozell Mark J., Growing Up Politically: The New Politics of the Christian Right, in: Sojourners in the Wilderness: the Christian Right in Comparative Perspective,
Smidt Corwin E. and Penning James M. (Eds.), Rowman & Littlefield, Lanham, 1997.
Rozell Mark J., The Christian Right in the 2000 GOP Campaign, , in: Piety, Politics and Pluralism. Religion, the Courts, and the 2000 Election, Segers Mary C. (Ed.),
Rowman & Littlefield, Lanham, 2002.
Sartori Giovanni, Parties and Party Systems, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1976.
Sharma Harish, Communal Angle in Indian Politics, Rawat Publications, Jaipur/Delhi, 2000.
Sprinzak Ehud, The Ascendance of Israel’s Radical Right, Oxford University Press, New York/Oxford, 1991.
Tachau Frank, Turkish Political Parties and Elections: Half a Century of Multiparty Democracy, Turkish Studies, Vol. 1, No. 1, 2000.
Tarrow Sidney, Power in Movement: Social Movements, Collective Action and Politics, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1994.
Eisinger Peter K., The Conditions of Protest Behavior in American Cities, The American Political Science Review, Vol. 67, No. 1, 1973.
Ünsaldi Levent, Le Militaire et la Politique en Turquie, Paris, L’Harmattan, 2005.
Watson Justin, The Christian Coalition: Dreams of Restoration, Demands for Recognition, St. Martin Press, New York, 1997.
Williams Rhys H., Movement Dynamics and Social Change: Transforming Fundamentalist Ideology and Organization, in: Accounting for Fundamentalism: the
Dynamic Character of Movements, Martin Marty and R. Scott Appleby (Eds.), The University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1994.
Yavuz M. Hakan, Introduction: The Role of the New Bourgeoisie in the Transformation of the Turkish Islamic Movement, in: The Emergence of a New Turkey: Democracy and the AK Party, Yavuz M. Hakan (Ed.), The University of Utah Press, Salt Lake City, 2006.
Yavuz M. Hakan, Islamic Political Identity in Turkey, Oxford University Press, New York, 2003.
Atacan Fulya, Explaining Religious Politics at the Crossroad: AKP-SP,Turkish Studies, Vol. 6, No. 2, 2005.
Yavuz M. Hakan, Political Islam and the Welfare (Refah) Party in Turkey, Comparative Politics, Vol. 30, No. 1, 1997.
Zarcone Thierry, La Turquie Moderne et l’Islam, Paris, Flammarion, 2004.
Copyright (c) 2017 Luca Ozzano
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.