FROM SAFE HAVEN TO MESSIANIC REDEMPTION: THE ASCENDANCE OF RELIGIOUS-ZIONISM
Keywords:Religious-Zionism, hegemony, Gush Emunim, Labor-Zionism, religionization
On June 13, 2021, Naftali Bennet was sworn in as Israel’s first ever Religious-Zionist Prime Minister. Although Bennet’s political party, Yamina (Rightward), currently has only seven seats in the Knesset (out of 120), and he heads a shaky coalition government, his election as Prime Minister symbolizes the progress made by Religious-Zionism towards achieving a hegemonic position in Israeli society. Historically, Religious-Zionism had been a junior partner in the historic bloc which sustained the hegemony of the Labor Zionist movement over the Zionist settlement project. However, the Arab-Israeli wars of 1967 and 1973 gave the younger generation of Religious-Zionism the opportunity to take over their own movement and aim, as they put it, to move from the back seat to the driver’s seat of Israeli society. Labor Zionism’s loss of the political initiative regarding the territories occupied in 1967 provided the opening for that move. Religious-Zionism encompasses a whole range of religious and nationalist outlooks, but its most influential and dynamic element is the activist-Messianic tendency associated with Gush Emunim. The core interest and value of this dominant tendency is the permanent incorporation of the West Bank under Israeli sovereignty.
Abulof Uriel, The Roles of Religion in National Legitimation: Judaism and Zionism’s Elusive Quest for Legitimacy, Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, Vol. 53, 2014.
Adamson Walter L., Hegemony and Revolution: A Study of Antonio Gramsci's Political and Cultural Theory, University of California Press, 1980.
Almog Shmuel, “The Role of Religious Values in the Second Aliyah”, in: Zionism and Religion, Shmuel Almog, Jehuda Reinharz and Anita Shapira (eds.), University Press of New England, Hanover, 1998.
Anderson Perry, The Antinomies of Antonio Gramsci, New Left Review, No. 100, 1976.
Arad Uzi and Meir Yaffe, “The Place, Contribution and Role of NGO's in the Area of Education for Judaism as Culture in the General State Educational System and its Community Space”, Panim: Everyone Deserve Jewish Culture, 2006, available at: http://www.panim.org.il/p120 (in Hebrew; accessed October 25, 2013).
Aran Gideon, “Jewish Zionist Fundamentalism: The Bloc of the Faithful in Israel (Gush Emunim)”, in: Fundamentalism Observed, Martin Marty and Scott R. Appleby (eds.), The University of Chicago Press, 1991.
Aran Gideon, From Religious-Zionism to Zionist Religion: The Roots of Gush Emunim, Studies in Contemporary Jewry, Vol. 2, 1986.
Atkes Emanuel, “Contours of the Image of Religious-Zionism”, in: Milestones: Essays and Studies in the History of the People of Israel, Emanuel Atkes et al. (eds.), Zalman Shazar Center, Jerusalem, 2016 (in Hebrew).
Azulai Naama, “Jewish Renewal in the Secular Space in Israel – 2006 – Lecture Summary”, Panim for Jewish Renaissance, available at: http://www.panim.org.il/p-120/ (in Hebrew; accessed November 7, 2014).
Bar-Or Galia, “Foreword”, in Matronita: Jewish Feminist Art, Ein Harod Museum of Art, 2012 (in Hebrew).
Barzel Naima, “Redemption Now”: The Beliefs and Activities of the Jewish Settlers in the West Bank and Israeli Society, Hakibbutz Hameuchad, Tel Aviv, 2017 (in Hebrew).
Ben-Ami Shlomo Shlomo, Prophets Without Honor: The 2000 Camp David Summit and the End of the Two-State Solution, Oxford University Press, 2022.
Ben-Porat Guy, Between State and Synagogue: The Secularization of Contemporary Israel, Cambridge University Press, 2013.
Ben-Porat Guy, Between State and Synagogue: The Secularization of Contemporary Israel, Cambridge University Press, 2013.
Ben-Sasson Hillel, “With Uplifted Eyes: The New Agenda of the National-Religious Leadership”, Molad, The Center for Democratic Renewal, 2015, available at: http://www.molad.org/articles/%D7%91%D7%A2%D7%99%D7%A0%D7%99%D7%99%D7%9D-%D7%A8%D7%9E%D7%95%D7%AA (in Hebrew; accessed September 30, 2017).
Bobbio Norberto, “Gramsci and the Conception of Civil Society”, in: Gramsci and Marxist Theory, Chantal Mouffe (ed.), London, Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1979.
Casanova José, Public Religion in the Modern World, University of Chicago Press, 1994.
Chanan Porat, For They Shall See, Eye to Eye, the Lord Returning to Zion, Ptachim, No. 32, 1975 (in Hebrew).
Charbit Denis, “Israel’s Self-Restrained Secularism from the 1947 Status Quo Letter to the Present”, in: Secularism on the Edge: Rethinking Church–State Relations in the United States, France, and Israel, Jacques Berlinerblau, Sarah Fainberg and Aurora Nou (eds.), Palgrave Macmillan, Basingstoke, 2014.
Cohen Stuart, Towards a New Portrait of the (New) Israeli Soldier, Israel Affairs, Vol. 3, 1997.
Don-Yehiya Eliezer, Messianism and Politics: The Ideological Transformation of Religious Zionism, Israel Studies, Vol. 19, No. 2, 2014.
Eisenstadt Shmuel N., Israeli Society, Weidenfeld and Nicolson, London, 1968.
Ettinger Yair, “Who's Afraid of Ruth Calderon?”, Haaretz, March 2, 2013 (in Hebrew).
Face of Society in Israel: Religion and Religiosity by Self-Definition, Central Bureau of Statistics (CBS), Report No. 10, Jerusalem, 2018 (in Hebrew).
Finkelstein Ariel, The National-Religious Society in Data, Ne’emanei Torah Va’Avodah, Jerusalem, 2021 (in Hebrew).
Fischer Shlomo, “Change or Continuity? Torah Regime, Citizenship and the Origins of Radical Religious-Zionism”, in: Points of Reference: Changing Identities and Social Positioning in Israel, Zeev Shavit et al. (eds.), Van Leer Jerusalem Institute (in Hebrew).
Fischer Shlomo, “The Crises of Liberal Citizenship: Religion and Education in Israel”, in: Religious Education and the Challenge of Pluralism, Adam Seligman (ed.), Oxford University Press, 2014.
Fischer Shlomo, Yes, Israel is Becoming More religious, Israel Studies Review, Vol. 27, No. 1, 2012.
Gebel Ines, “The National-Religious Public and the Media – A New Love story?” in: From the Margins to the Fore? Religious-Zionism and Israeli Society, Sheleg Yair (ed.), Israel Democracy Institute, Jerusalem, 2019 (in Hebrew).
Gelber Yoav, “The Consolidation of Jewish Society in Eretz-Israel, 1936-1947”, in: The History of the Jewish Community in Eretz-Israel Since 1882, Israeli Academy for Sciences and Humanities, Jerusalem, 1994 (in Hebrew).
Goldberg Ori, “Trains on Time: Faith, Political Belonging, and Governability in Israel”, in: Religion, Secularism, and Political Belonging, Medovoi Leerom, Bentley Elizabeth (eds.), Duke University Press, New York, 2021.
Gorenberg Gershon, The Accidental Empire: Israel and the Birth of the Settlements, 1967-1977, Times Books, New York, 2006.
Gramsci Antonio, Selections from the Prison Notebooks, Hoare Quintin, Nowell Smith Geoffrey (trs.), International Publishers, New York, 1971.
Greenblum Dror, From the Bravery of the Spirit to the Sanctification of Power: Power and Bravery in Religious-Zionism 1948-1967, Open University Press, Tel Aviv, 2016 (in Hebrew).
Grinberg Lev Louis, “Paving the Way to Neoliberalism: The Self-Destruction of the Zionist Labor Movement”, in: Neoliberalism as a State Project: Changing the Political Economy of Israel, Asa Maron and Shalev Michael (eds.), Oxford University Press, 2017.
Hahagana Organization, available at: https://www.hahagana.org.il/database/song/ (accessed March 6, 2022).
HCJ 390/79, Dwikat v. Government of Israel.
Hellinger Moshe, Herschkowitz Isaac and Susser Bernard, Religious-Zionism and the Settlement Project: Ideology, Politics, and Civil Disobedience, SUNY Press, 2018.
Hermann Tamar et al., The National-Religious Sector in Israel 2014, Israel Democracy Institute, Jerusalem, 2014 (in Hebrew).
Hershkowitz Isaac, “Religious-Zionist Thought in the Curriculum of the State Religious Educational System: Situation Report, 2016”, in: From the Margins to the Fore? Religious-Zionism and Israeli Society, Sheleg Yair (ed.), Israel Democracy Institute, Jerusalem, 2019 (in Hebrew).
Hochman Reut, “Rabbis Who Do Not Believe in God? Description of a Secular Humanist Rabbi in Israel – An Exploratory Study,” MA thesis, Department of Sociology and Anthropology, Haifa University, 2009 (in Hebrew).
Hornstein Elona and Yossi Goldstein, Elon Moreh as a Symbol, Israel Affairs, Vol. 23, No. 1, 2017, p. 57.
Horowitz Dan and Moshe Lissak, Origins of the Israeli Polity: Palestine under the Mandate, Chicago University Press,1978.
Inbar Efraim, Contours of Israel’s New Strategic Thinking, Political Science Quarterly, Vol. 111, 1996.
Inbar Efraim, Fundamentalism in Crisis—The Response of the Gush Emunim Rabbinical Authorities to the Theological Dilemmas Raised by Israel's Disengagement Plan, Journal of Church and State, Vol. 49, 2007.
Inbari Motti, “Messianic Religious Zionist Rabbis Cope with the Disengagement Plan: Three Reactions to the Fear of Prophetic Failure”, in: From the Margins to the Fore? Religious-Zionism and Israeli Society, Sheleg Yair (ed.), Israel Democracy Institute, Jerusalem, 2019 (in Hebrew).
Inbari Motti, Rav Zvi Yehudah Kook's Conception of Zionism and the Roots of 'Gush Emunim', Iyunim Betkumat Yisrael, No. 18, (in Hebrew).
Jobani Yuval, Three Basic Models of Secular Jewish Culture, Israel Studies, Vol. 13, No. 3, 2008.
Katsman Hayim, The Hyphen Cannot Hold: Contemporary Trends in Religious-Zionism, Israel Studies Review, Vol. 35, No. 2, 2020.
Katz Gideon, Secularism and the Imaginary Polemic of Israeli Intellectuals, Israel Studies, Vol. 13, No. 3, 2008.
Kleiman Ephraim, The Waning of Israeli Etatisme, Israel Studies, Vol. 2, 1997.
Lears T.J. Jackson, The Concept of Cultural Hegemony: Problems and Possibilities, The American Historical Review, Vol. 90, 1985.
Levy Yagil, The Divine Commander: The Theocratization of the Israeli Military, Am Oved, Tel Aviv, 2015 (in Hebrew).
Levy Yagil, Trial and Error: Israel’s Route from War to De-Escalation, SUNY Press, Albany, 1997.
Liebman Charles and Eliezer Don-Yehiya, Civil Religion in Israel: Traditional Judaism and Political Culture in the Jewish State, University of California Press, 1983.
Lustick Ian, For the Land and the Lord: Jewish Fundamentalism in Israel, Council on Foreign Relations, New York, 1988.
Lustick Ian, Paradigm Lost: From Two-State Solution to One-State Reality, University of Pennsylvania Press, 2019.
Lustick Ian, Unsettled States, Disputed Lands: Britain and Ireland, France and Algeria, Israel and the West Bank-Gaza, Cornell University Press, 1993.
Maniv Omri and Yuval Benziman, National-Religionization (and not Religious-Religionization) in Policies of Israel’s Ministry of Education, Israel Studies, Vol. 25, No. 2, 2020.
Maoz Zeev, Defending the Holy Land: A Critical Analysis of Israel's Security and Foreign Policy, University of Michigan Press, 2006.
Morris Benny, The Birth of the Palestinian Refugee Problem Revisited, Cambridge University Press, 2004.
Naor Arie, The Security Argument in the Territorial Debate in Israel: Rhetoric and Policy, Israel Studies, Vol. 4, 1999.
Ofrat Gideon, Is there a 'Cultural Revolution' Among the Knitted Skullcaps?, Kivunum Chadashim, No. 17, 2008 (in Hebrew).
Orbach Uri, “The Best to the Media”, Nekuda, No. 106, 1987 (in Hebrew).
Pappe Ilan, The Ethnic Cleansing of Palestine, Oneworld Publications, London, 2006.
Peled Yoav and Herman Horit Peled, The Religionization of Israeli Society, Routledge, London, 2019.
Peled Yoav, “From Oslo to Gaza: The Remilitarization of the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict”, in: Militarism and International Relations: Political Economy, Security, Theory, Anna Stavrianakis and Jan Selby (eds.), Routledge, London, 2012.
Peleg Yaron, Directed by God: Jewishness in Contemporary Israeli Film and Television, University of Texas Press, 2016.
Peres Yochanan and Eliezer Ben-Rafael, Closeness and Conflict: Cleavages in Israeli Society, Am Oved, Tel Aviv, 2006 (in Hebrew).
Pery Yoram, Introduction, Israel Studies Review, Vol. 27, No. 1, 2012.
Press Release: Birth and Fertility in Israel, 2020, Central Bureau of Statistics (CBS), February 21, 2022, Jerusalem (in Hebrew).
Propagating: How the Religious Right Took Control of Values Education in the [Secular] State System, Jerusalem: Molad – The center for Democratic Renewal, 2017 (in Hebrew).
Ram Uri, Why Secularism Fails? Secular Nationalism and Religious Revivalism in Israel, International Journal of Politics, Culture, and Society, Vol. 21, No. 1, 2008.
Ramos Valeriano Jr., The Concepts of Ideology, Hegemony, and Organic Intellectuals in Gramsci’s Marxism, Theoretical Review, No. 27, 1982. Available at: https://www.marxists.org/history/erol/periodicals/theoretical-review/1982301.htm (accessed April 22, 2022).
Rief Racheli, “Art has an Opportunity to Revive Judaism,” Shabat: Makor Rishon Supplement for Torah, Thought, Culture and Art, February 15, 2013, available: http://musafshabbat.com/ (in Hebrew; accessed November 7, 2014).
Rodick Y.B., Land of Redemption: Ideological Roots of Religious-Zionism, Gush Emunim and the Jewish Underground and their Relations with the Secular World in the State of Israel, The Institute for Research in Rav Kook's Thought, Jerusalem, 1989 (in Hebrew).
Rosman-Stollman Elisheva, “The Place of Religious-Zionism in the Israel Defense Forces: A Look from the Inside”, in: From the Margins to the Fore? Religious-Zionism and Israeli Society, Sheleg Yair (ed.), Israel Democracy Institute, Jerusalem, 2019 (in Hebrew).
Rubin Aviad, Bifurcated Loyalty and Religious Actors’ Behaviour in Democratic Politics: The Case of Post-1967 Religious-Zionism in Israel, Religion, State and Society, Vol. 42, No. 1, 2014.
Rubinstein Danny, On the Lord's Side: Gush Emunim, Hakibbutz Hameuchad, Tel Aviv, 1982 (in Hebrew).
Sagi Avi, Dov Schwartz, From Realism to Messianism: Religious-Zionism and the Six-Day War, Carmel, Jerusalem, 2017 (in Hebrew).
Saker-Barzilay Raz, “By Right: Religionization Processes as a Source of Legitimacy for the Socio-Political System in Israel,” MA thesis, Department of Political Science, Tel Aviv University, 2019 (in Hebrew).
Schwartz Dov , Religious-Zionism and the Idea of the New Man, Israel, No. 16, 2009 (in Hebrew).
Schwartz Dov, Religious-Zionism: History and Chapters of Ideology, State of Israel, Ministry of Defense, Tel Aviv, 2003 (in Hebrew).
Shafir Gershon and Yoav Peled, Being Israeli, Cambridge University Press, 2002.
Shafir Gershon, Land, Labor and the Origins of the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict, 1882-1914, University of California Press, updated edition, 1996.
Shalev Michael, Labour and the Political Economy of Israel, Oxford University Press, 1992.
Shapira Anita, Land and Power: The Zionist Resort to Force, 1881-1948, Oxford University Press, 1992.
Shapira Anita, The Origins of the Myth of the 'New Jew:' The Zionist Variety, Studies in Contemporary Jewry, Vol. 31, 1997.
Shapiro Yonathan, The Formative Years of the Israeli Labour Party: The Organization of Power, 1919-1930, Sage, New York, 1976.
Shapiro Yonathan, The Road to Power: Herut Party in Israel, SUNY Press, Albany, NY, 1991.
Shenhar Aliza, A Crisis in Judaic Studies – and the Academic World is Silent, Kivunim Chadashim, No. 16, 2007 (in Hebrew).
Social Survey 2018, Central Bureau of Statistics (CBS), Jerusalem, 2020 (in Hebrew).
Sperber David, “Feminist Art in the Sphere of Traditional and Religious Judaism,” in: Matronita: Jewish Feminist Art, Ein Harod Museum of Art, 2012 (in Hebrew).
The Gramsci Reader: Selected Writings 1916-1935, Forgacs David (ed.), New York University Press, 2000, pp. 211-212
Tzaban Yair, “Foreword”, in: New Jewish Time: Jewish Culture in a Secular Age – Encyclopedic View, Yermiyahu Yovel (ed.), Keter, Jerusalem, 2007 (in Hebrew).
Zehavi Amos, Religionization from the Bottom Up: Religiosity Trends and Institutional Change Mechanisms in Israeli Public Services, Politics and Religion, Vol. 10, No. 3, 2017.