ISLAMIC FUNDAMENTALISM AND RELIGIOUS CONFLICTS IN NIGERIA: REFLECTIONS ON THE BOKO HARAM INSURGENCE
The paper examines the nature, operations and driving force behind the Boko Haram insurgence in Nigeria. It argues that while portending Islamic fundamentalist credentials, Boko Haram is also representative of the socio-economic aspirations of most ordinary citizens in the Northeast of Nigeria who are excluded from the socio-economic spheres in modern Nigeria. Boko Haram posits both the irrelevance and decadence of the state and the need for its violent overthrow and establishment of pure Islamic society. It argues that even though Boko Haram cannot be fully explained by socio-economic factors, extant structural and socio-economic conditions in the Northeast produce many frustrated and deprived young people who feed into the fundamentalist aspirations of Boko Haram. Thus, the coincidence between socio-economic conditions in the Northeast which compares unfavorably with other zones in Nigeria; the structural deficiencies of the state and a long history of Islamic fundamentalism creates the conducive atmosphere for violent extremism represented by Boko Haram.
Aghedo I, Old wine in a new wine Bottle: Ideological and Operational Linkages between Maitatsine and Boko Haram Revolts in Nigeria, African Security, Vol. 7, 2014.
Allison S, Nigeria: Is South Africa really joining the Fight against Boko Haram? Daily Maverick, 2016, 8 March, www.dailymaverick.co.za/article/2016-03-08-nigeria-is-south africa-really-joining-the-fight against-boko-haram/, accessed September 7th 2018.
Anugwom E. E, “Mediatising Islamic Fundamentalism: Insights from the Boko Haram Insurgence in Nigeria”, in: New Media and the Mediatisation of Religion: An AfricanPerspective, Gabriel Faimau and William Lesitaokana (eds), Newcastle upon Tyne, Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2018.
Anugwom E. E, Contested Terrain: Economic Migration, Islamic Sharia law and Ethno-Religious Conflicts in Nigeria, African Study Monographs, Vol. 29, No. 4, 2008.
Anugwom E. E, P. Oji, “Ethnic and Religious Crisis in Nigeria: a Review of Past and Present Dimensions”, in: Religion and Societal Development, M. Okwueze (ed.), Lagos, Merit International Pub, 2004.
Awofeso S, Warring in God’s name, This Week, March 30, 1987.
British Encyclopedia Online, Usman dan Fodio, 2013, http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/620352/Usman-dan-Fodio.html, accessed September 7th 2018.
Bello M, E.J Arnett, The Rise of Sokoto Fulani. Kano, Kano Emirate Printing, 1922.
Campbell J, Nigeria and the Horror of Boko Haram. Lecture presented at the Carnegie Council for Ethics in International Affairs, 2015. http://www.carnegiecouncil.org/studio/multimedia/2015/50303, accessed August 16th 2018.
CNN Library, Boko Haram Fast Facts, 2017, http://www.cnn.com/2014/06/09/world/boko-haram-fast-facts/index.html, accessed September 1st 2018.
Comolli V, Boko Haram: Nigeria’s Islamist Insurgency, London, Hurst and Co, 2015.
Danjibo N.D, Islamic Fundamentalism and Sectarian Violence: The “Maitatsine” and “Boko Haram” Crises in Northern Nigeria, http://www.ifra-nigeria.org/IMG/pdf/N-D-DANJIBO-islamic-fundamentalism-and-sectarian-violence.pdf.
Delman Edward, The World’s Deadliest Terrorist Organization, its not ISIS, The Atlantic, 2015, November 18, https://www.theatlantic.com, accessed August 3rd 2018.
Falola T, Violence in Nigeria: The Crisis of Religious Politics and Secular Ideologies, New York, University of Rochester, 1998.
Galadima Dan, The metamorphosis of Boko Haram, 2011, www.leadership.ng/nga/columns/2571/2011/07/24/metamorphosis-boko-haram.html, accessed July
Hiskett M, The Sword of Truth: The Life and Times of the Shehu Usman dan Fodio, London, Oxford, 1973.
Intergovernmental Authority on Development (IGAD), Al-Shabab is a Threat to East Africa Region, 2016 IGAD Report, Africa News, 16 August 2016.
Kukah M. H, Religion, Politics and Power in Northern Nigeria, Ibadan, Spectrum, 1993.
Last M, The Sokoto Caliphate, London, Longmans, 1967.
Loimeier R, Boko Haram: The Development of a Militant Religious Movement in Nigeria, Africa Spectrum, Vol. 47, No. 2-3, 2012.
National Bureau of Statistics, Nigeria Poverty Profile, Abuja, NBS, 2012a.
National Bureau of Statistics, National Baseline Youth Survey, Abuja, NBS, 2012b.
National Bureau of Statistics, General Household Survey Report (2007 – 2011), Abuja, NBS, 2012c.
National Bureau of Statistics, National Literacy Survey, Abuja, NBS, 2010.
News 24, Nigeria Eid Suicide Attack Death Toll Rises, 2018, https://m.news24.com, accessed August 23rd 2018.
News UN, UN Chief Condemns Suspected Boko Haram Attacks targeting Eid al-Fitr Celebrations in Nigeria, 2018, https://new.un.org, accessed August 23rd 2018.
Nigerian Newsworld, Combating terrorism in Nigeria: politics, pains, gains, 24 June, 2013.
Ojochenemi D.J, Asuelime L.E, and Onapajo, H, Boko Haram: the socio-economic drivers, New York, Springer, 2015.
Perry A, The Hunt for Boko Haram: Investigating the Terror tearing Nigeria Apart, London, Newsweek Insights, 2014.
Sani S, Boko Haram: History, Ideas and Revolt, Vanguard Newspaper (Online), 2011, http://www.vanguardngr.com/2011/07/boko-haram-history-ideas-andrevolt-5, accessed August 23rd 2018.
Sanusi L. S, “Politics and Sharia in Northern Nigeria”, in: Islam and Muslim Politics in Africa, Soares B and R Otayek (eds), New York, Palgrave Macmillan, 2007.
Silva C, What is Niger Delta Avengers? Nigerian President Buhari Threatened with Death Warrant Ahead of Visit to Oil Region, 2016, http://www.ibtimes.com/
what-niger-delta-avengers-nigerian-president-buhari-threatened-death-warrantahead-2376698, accessed June 5th 2018.
Simons R, Boko Haram and the Agenda of a Failed Nigeria State, No Publisher Indicated, 2015.
Smith M, Boko Haram: Inside Nigeria’s Unholy War, London and New York, I. B Tauris, 2016.
The Two Way NPR, 110 Girls Missing in Latest Suspected Boko Haram At242tack, says Nigerian Government, 2018, https://www.npr.org/sections/thetwoway/2018/02/25/588867121/110-girls-missing-in-latest-suspected-boko-haram-attack-says-nigerian-government, accessed June 19th 2018.
Udoidem S, “Religion in the Political Life in Nigeria: A Survey of Religion-Related Crises since Independence”, in: New strategies for curbing Ethnic and Religious Conflicts in Nigeria, Okafor F.U (ed.), Enugu, Fourth Dimension, 1997.
Usman Y.B, The Manipulation of Religion in Nigeria, 1979-1987, Kaduna, Vanguard Pub, 1987.
Walker A, Eat the Heart of the Infidel’: The Harrowing of Nigeria and the rise of the Boko Haram, London, Hurst and Co. Pub, 2016.
Williams P, “New measures to ensure an effective separation of state and religion in Nigeria”, in: New Strategies for curbing Ethnic and Religious Conflicts in Nigeria, Okafor F.U (ed.), Enugu, Fourth Dimension, 1997.
Copyright (c) 2019 Edlyne E. E. Anugwom
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.