AFGHANISTAN: THE SHIFTING RELIGIO-ORDER AND ISLAMIC DEMOCRACY
The purpose of this paper is to explore the relationship between the Islamic religio-order and the fledgling democratic institutions in contemporary Afghanistan. This paper challenges the predominant notion that Islam and democracy are not compatible in Afghanistan by producing a historical account that traces the history of the Afghan religio-order in relation to the ever-changing political sphere. I argue that the Afghan religio-order has historically been co-opted and controlled by Afghan political institutions, no matter what political and ideological system was in place. The legitimation of the political sphere by the Islamic religio-order reveals that Islamic authority and legitimacy given to political institutions is shaped by political interests as opposed to religious doctrine. Finally, this paper builds on the historical analysis to argue that the contemporary Islamic democratic system provides for the first time in contemporary Afghan history an autonomous Islamic religio-order via the Afghan judiciary.
Ahmad Khurshid, Islam and Democracy: Some Conceptual and Contemporary Dimensions, The Muslim World, Vol. 90, 2000.
Ahmed Samina, Warlords, Drugs, Democracy, World Today, Vol. 60, No. 5, 2004.
Alexander Jeffery, The Civil Sphere, Oxford University Press, New York, 2006.
Anoushiravan Ehteshami, Islam, Muslim Polities and Democracy, Democratization, Vol. 90, 2004.
Arjomand Amir Said, Religion, Political Order and Societal change: With special Reference to Shiite Islam, Current Perspective in Social Theory, Vol. 6, 1985.
Ayoob Mohammed, Challenging Hegemony: Political Islam and the North-South Divide, International Studies Review, Vol. 9, 2007.
Barakat Sultan, Setting the scene for Afghanistan’s reconstruction: the challenges and critical dilemmas, Third World Quarterly, Vol. 23, No. 5, 2002.
Barfield Thomas J, Problems in establishing legitimacy in Afghanistan, Iranian Studies, Vol. 37, No. 2, 2004.
Barfield Thomas, Afghanistan A Cultural and Political History, Princeton University Press, 2010.
Barfield Thomas J, First Steps: The Afghan Elections, Current History, Vol. 104, No. 680, 2005.
Bielefeldt Heiner, Muslim Voices in the Human Rights Debate, Human Rights Quarterly, Vol. 17, 1995.
Browne Edward G, The Persian Revolution in 1905–1909, Cambridge University Press, 1910.
Bulliet Richard W, Local Politics in eastern Iran under the Ghaznavids and the Seljuqs, Iranian Studies, Vol. 11, 1978.
Butterfield Herbert, The Whig Interpretation of History. W. W. Norton Company, 1965.
Eickelman Dale F, Piscatori James, Muslim Politics, Princeton University Press, 1996.
Khaled A. Fadl, Constitutionalism and the Islamic Sunni Legacy, UCLA Journal of Islamic and Near Eastern Law, Vol. 1, 2001.
Freeman Christopher P, Dissonant Discourse: Forging Islamist States through Secular Models: The Case of Afghanistan, Cambridge Review of International Affairs, Vol. 15, No. 3, 2002.
Frye Richard, Cambridge History of Iran From the Arab Invasions to the Saljuqs, Cambridge University Press, 2008.
Fukuyama Francis, The End of History and the Last Man, Free Press, New York, 1992
Esposito, John L, Piscatori James, Democratization and Islam, Middle East Journal, Vol. 45, 1991.
Esposito John L, O. Voll John, Islam and Democracy, Oxford University Press, 1996.
Gambill Gary C, Democratization, the Peace Process, and Islamic Extremism, Middle East Intelligence Bulletin, Vol. 6, No. 6/7, 2004.
Gannon Kathy, Afghanistan Unbound, Foreign Affairs, Vol. 83, No. 3, 2004.
Guenther Roth, History and Sociology in the Work of Max Weber, The British Journal of Sociology, Vol. 27, No. 3, 1976.
Halliday Fred, Islam and the Myth of Confrontation: Religion and Politics in the Middle East, I.B. Tauris, London, 1996.
Hefner Robert W, Global Violence and Indonesian Muslim Politics, American Anthropologist, Vol. 104, No. 3, 2002.
Hofmann Steven R, Islam and Democracy: Micro-Level Indications of Compatibility, Comparative Political Studies, Vol. 37, 2004.
Huntington Samuel P, The Clash of Civilizations?, Foreign Affairs, Vol. 72, 1993.
Hyman Anthony, Nationalism in Afghanistan, International Journal of Middle East Studies, Vol. 34, No. 2, 2002.
Jackson Paul, Warlords as alternative Forms of Governance, Small Wars & Insurgencies, Vol. 14, No. 2, 2003.
Jennings John, Afghanistan: The Gulf between Report and Reality, Middle East Intelligence Bulletin, Vol. 6, No. 1, 2004.
Jevtic Miroljub, Political Science and Religion, Politics and Religion Journal, Vol. 1, No. 1, 2007.
Karzai Hamid, The Future of Afghanistan. Vital speeches of the day, Vol. 71, No. 5, 2004.
Kedourie Elie, Democracy and Arab Political Culture, Frank Cass, London, 1994.
Kleiner Jurgen, The Taliban and Islam, Diplomacy and Statecraft, Vol. 11, No. 1, 2000.
Kramer Gudrun, Islamist Notions of Democracy, Middle East Report, Vol. 183, 1993.
Lapham Steven S, Forging a New Afghanistan, Social Education, Vol. 66, No. 1, 2002.
Lapidus Ira, The History of Islamic Societies, Cambridge University Press, 1988.
Lewis Bernard, The Shaping of the Modern Middle East, Oxford University Press, 1994.
Lewis Bernard, Islam and Liberal Democracy: A Historical Overview, Journal of Democracy, Vol. 7, 1996.
Lewis Bernard, What Went Wrong? The Clash between Islam and Modernity in the Middle East, Oxford University Press, 2002.
Mazrui Ali A, Islamic and Western Values, Foreign Affairs, Vol. 76, 1997.
Nawid Senzil, Comparing the regimes of Amanullah (1919–29) and the Afghan marxists (1978–92): Similarities and differences, Critical Middle Eastern Studies, Vol. 2, 1993.
Peake Gordon, From Warlords to Peacelords?, Journal of International Affairs, Vol. 56, No. 2, 2003.
Pearson Thomas, Imperial Legacies and Democratic Prospects: Max Weber’s,The Russian Revolutions in Historical Perspective, International Journal of Politics, Culture, and Society, Vol. 9, No. 4, 1996.
Pipes Daniel, There Are No Moderates: Dealing with Fundamentalist Islam, The National Interest, Vol. 41, 1995.
Rasanayagam Angelo, Afghanistan: A Modern History, I.B. Taurus & Co. Ltd, New York, 2003.
Rashid Ahmed, Taliban: Militant Islam, Oil and Fundamentalism in Central Asia, I.B. Taurus & Co. Ltd, United Kingdom, 2001.
Rubin Barnett R, Transitional justice and human rights in Afghanistan, International Affairs, Vol. 79, No. 3, 2003.
Ruthven Malise, Islam in the World. New York, Oxford University Press, 2005.
Reuveny Rafael, Prakash Aseem, The Afghanistan war and the breakdown of the Soviet Union, Review of International Studies, Vol. 25, 1999.
Schetter Conrad, Ethnoscapes, National Territorialisation, and the Afghan War, Geopolitics, Vol. 10, No. 1, 2002.
Shahrani Nazif M, War, Factionalism, and the State in Afghanistan, American Anthropologist, Vol. 104, No. 3, 2002.
Tamimi Azzam S, The Renaissance of Islam, Daedalus, Vol. 132, 2003.
Tamimi Azzam S, Islam and Democracy from Tahtawi to Ghannouchi, Theory, Culture & Society, Vol. 24, 2007.
Their Alexander, Chopra Jarat, The road ahead: political and institutional reconstruction in Afghanistan, Third World Quarterly, Vol. 23, No. 5, 2002.
Tonnies Ferdinand, Community and Civil Society, Cambridge University Press, 2001.
Voll John O, Islam and Democracy: Is Modernization a Barrier? Religion Compass Vol. 1, 2007.
Weiner Myron, Ali Banuazizi, The Politics of Social Transformation in Afghanistan, Iran and Pakistan, Syracuse University Press, New York, 1995.
Copyright (c) 2018 Anwar Ouassini
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.