MODERNIZATION VERSUS TRADITION IN THE STRUGGLE FOR A REPUBLIC IN 1920s IRAN

  • Anna Ardashnikova Lomonosov Moscow State University
  • Tamara Konyashkina Lomonosov Moscow State University

Abstract

The aim of the article is to analyze the first attempts to establish republic in Iran in 1920s. The revision of monarchical principles brought to life two independent republican projects, one of which, proclaimed on behalf of the traditional leader Kuchik Khan, was essentially a Soviet replica, and the second, initiated by Prime Minister Reza Khan, was the way to establish a dictatorship based on the principles of nationalism. An obstacle to the implementation of both republican plans was not only the denial of the religious authorities, but also a wide popular protest. As part of an interdisciplinary study, the article analyzes the arsenal of propaganda tools used to proclaim their political views by supporters and opponents of the republic. The work is based on archival documentary materials and works of a literary and journalistic origin, which are first introduced into scientific circulation.

Keywords: Iran, republic, Kuchik Khan, Gilan, Reza Khan, the Tajaddod party, Eshghi

References

Abrahamian E., Iran between two revolutions, Princeton University Press, N.J., 1982.

Aref Qazvini, Kolliyat-e Divan (The Complete Works), Tehran, 1336 (1957).

Asadulaev K., Sverzhenie dinastii Kadzharov v Irane 1920-1925 (The overthrow of the Qajar dynasty in Iran 1920-1925), Dushanbe, 1966.

Azari Ali, Qiyam-e colonel Mohammad Taqi Khan-e Pessian dar Khorasan (The uprasing of Colonel Mohammad Taqi Khan Pessian in Khorasan), Tehran, 1328 (1950).

Chaqueri Cosroe, The Soviet Socialist Republic of Iran, 1920-1921: Birth of the trauma, Pittsburg University Press, 1995.

Chajkin K., Kratkij ocherk novejshej persidskoj literatury (Short Essay on the New Persian Literature), Moscow, 1928.

Cronin Stephanie, Tribal Politics in Iran. Rural conflict and the new state, 1921-1941, Routledge, London, New York, 2007.

The making of modern Iran: State and society under Riza Shah, 1921-1941, Cronin Stephanie (ed.), Routlege, London, New York, 2003.

Egikjan G., Shouravi va jombesh-e mashrooteh (The Soviet and the constitutional movement), Novin, Tehran, 1363 (1985).

Eshghi Mirzadeh, Kolliyat-e mosawwar (The Complete Works with Illustrations), 8th ed., ed. Salimi Moshir, Tehran, 1357 (1978).

Genis V., Krasnaya Persiya. Bol’sheviki v Gilyane 1920-1921 (Red Persia. Bolsheviks in Gilan 1920-1921), Moskva MNTI, 2000.

Ghani Cirus, Iran and the rise of Reza Shah: from Qajar collapse to Pahlavi rule, London, 2000.

Gods Reza, Iran v 20 veke (Iran in the 20 century), Nauka, Moskva, 1994.

Grigor Tallin, Recultivating ‘Good taste’: the early Pahlavi modernists and their society for national heritage, Iranian Studies, Vol. 37, No. 1, 2004.

Osetrov V.P., Persidskie partii: (Pis’mo iz Tegerana) (Persian Parties. Letter from Tehran), Novyj Vostok, No, 1, 1922.

Kirillina S.A., Safronova A.L., Orlov V.V., Halifatizm v epohu krusheniya Osmanskoj imperii (Caliphism in the era of the collapse of the Ottoman Empire), Vestnik Rossijskogo universiteta druzhby narodov, Seriya: Vseobshchaya istoriya, Vol. 10, No. 4, 2018.

Makki Hosein, Tarikh-e bist sale-ye Iran (Twenty-year history of Iran), V. 2, 1324 (1945), V.3, Tehran, 1325 (1946).

Persidskij front mirovoj revolyucii. Dokumenty o sovetskom vtorzhenii v Gilyan (1920-1921), Qadriga, Moskva, 2017 (Persian Front of the World Revolution. Documents on the Soviet invasion of Gilan).

Sabahi Houshang, British Policy in Persia, 1918-1925, London, Frank Cass, 1990.

Safar-nama-ye Reza-shah-e Pahlavi be Khuzestan wa Mazandaran (The Travel Account of Reza Shah Phalavi through Khuzestan and Mazandaran). USA, 2007.

Smirnov K.N. Zapiski vospitatelya persidskogo shaha, 1907-1914 gody (Notes of the Persian Shah’s Upbringer, 1907-1914). Tel Aviv, 2002.

Zirinsky Michael, Imperial Power and Dictatorship: Britain and the Rise of Reza Shah, 1921-1926, International Journal of Middle East Studies, Vol. 24, No. 4, 1992.

Published
2020-03-30
Section
TOPIC OF THIS ISSUE