ISLAM IN CHINA

  • Raphael Israeli Hebrew University, Jerusalem, Israel

Abstract

Unlike other Muslim minorities in the world, the one in China is : a. Divided between two large ethnic groups: Hui in China Proper, who are concentrated in major urban agglomerations; and Uighurs, of Turkish stock, who used to make up the majority in North-Western China, but are now outnumbered by Han Chinese, via a policy of settlement and dilution of the minority. b. Except for Xinjiang, the Muslims of China are not attached to any particular territory (like the Mongols in Mongolia or the Tibetans in Tibet), but are spread all over the country, something which dilutes them into an insignificant minority (1-2%) in spite of their large absolute numbers (25-30 million). The vast distribution of the Muslims all over that vast country has made for a huge diversification in their creed and customs, beyond the division between Hui and Uighurs. This great variety has created many sects and sub-sects, some of which are very special to China.

Keywords: Hui, Uighurs, Xinjiang, New Sect (xin-jiao), Sectarianism, separatism, secession

References

Bai Shou-Yi, Hui-min Qi—I (The Rightful Uprisings of Muslims), 3 Vol, Shanghai, 1953.
Broomhall M., Islam in China: A Neglected Problem, London Missionary Society, London, 1910.
Franke Herbert, Aḥmed. Ein Beitrag zur Wirtschaftsgeschichte China’s unter Qubilai, in: Oriens, i [1948.
Gladney Dru, Muslim Chinese: Ethnic Nationalism in the People’s Republic of China, Council on East Asian Studies, Harvard University Press, Cambridge 1991, 1996.
Israeli Raphael, Muslims in China: a Study in Cultural Confrontation, Curzon, London, 1980.
Israeli Raphael, Islam in China: a Critical Bibliography, Greenwood Press, Westport, 1994.
Israeli Raphael, Islam in China: Religion, Ethnicity, Culture and Politics, Lexington Books, Lanham and Oxford, 2002.
Israeli Raphael, „Is There Shi’a in Chinese Islam?”, in: Journal of Muslim Minority Affairs, IX, No 1, January 1988.
Israeli Raphael, Gardner-Rush, Adam, “Sectarian Islam and Sino-Muslim Identity in China”, Muslim World, Vol 90, No 3-4, Fall 2000.
Leslie D.D. , Islam in Traditional China: a Short History to 1800, Canberra College of Advanced Education, Canberra, 1986.
Lipman Jonathan, Hyphenated Chinese: Sino-Muslim Identity in Modern China, in: Remapping China: Fissures in Historical Terain, Stanford University
Press, Hershatter Gail, Honig Emily, Lipman Jonathan, Stross Randall (eds.), Stanford, 1996.
Mǎ Tōng, Zhongguo Yisilanjiao jiaopai yu menhuan zhidu shilu (A History of the Islamic Sects and menhuan in China), Xīběi mínzú xuéyuàn (Northwest
University for Nationalities), Lanzhou, 1981.
Sheridan Michael, „ War on terror hides brutal crackdown on Muslims”, The Sunday Times, July 22, 2007. http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/world/asia/china/article2116123.ece
Yule Henry, Cordier Henri, The Book of Ser Marco Polo: the Venetian : concerning the kingdoms and marvels of the East, John Murray, London, 3, 1903.
Vissière A., Etudes sino-mahométanes, Ernest Leroux , Paris 1911, 41 n. 1.
Zhongguo Yisilan jiaopai menhuan suyuan (The Origins of Chinese Islamic Sects and Menhuan), Níngxià rénmín chūbǎn shè (Ningxia Publishing), Yinchuan,
1986.
Published
2017-01-10
Section
TOPIC OF THIS ISSUE