• John Rex University of Warwick, United Kingdom


This article seeks to consider the ways in which substitutes for religion have been found both through a discussion of the treatment of religion in the classical sociological theories of Weber, Durkheim and Marx and then the way in which in modern societies alternative sets of belief and practices which fulfi l the same function as religion have been developed in the Communist and the postCommunist and Western worlds.

Keywords: Sociology of Religion. Religious substitutes, Communism and Religion, Religion in Western Politics, Religions without God


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