IMMIGRATION AND RELIGIOUS NATIONALISM IN EUROPE
Previous research has established that the concept of difference is critical in national identity formation. This paper applies these broad understandings of identity formation to current immigration trends in Europe by looking at the relationship between immigration, nationalism, and religiosity in the European context. If theories about religious difference are accurate, then states with large and increasing numbers of Muslim immigrants should show stronger and increasing measures of religious (Christian) nationalism as Europeans fall back on religion as a key tool in self-identification. This hypothesis is tested by using OLS regression and Logit to calculate the strength of the relationship between religion and nationalism in central and western European states using data drawn from World Values and European Values Surveys. Additional controls, including age, sex, education, income, and political orientation are also included. The resulting measure of religious nationalism is then examined in relationship to immigration trends across the continent. The findings show an increased, albeit complicated, link between religion and nationalism in countries with higher levels of non-EU immigration, and therefore partially support the hypothesis. The findings also show that increased religious diversity undermines religious nationalism over time, therefore painting a mixed picture for the future of identity politics in Europe.
Acquaviva S.S., The Decline of the Sacred in Industrial Society, Blackwell Publishers, Oxford, 1979.
Anderson Benedict, Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism, Revised, Verso, London, 1991.
Barker Philip W., Muck J. William, Secular Roots of Religious Rage: Shaping Religious Identity in the Middle East, Politics and Religion Journal, Vol. 3. No. 2, 2009.
Barker Philip W., Religious Nationalism in Modern Europe: If God Be For Us, Routledge, London, 2009.
Berger Peter, The Descularization of the World: A Global Overview, In: The Desecularization of the World: Resurgent Religion and World Politics, Peter Berger
(ed)., Ethics and Public Policy Center, Washington, 1999.
Bruce Steve, Religion in the Modern World, Oxford University Press, 1996.
Casanova Jose, Public Religions in the Modern World, University of Chicago Press, 1994.
Coakley John, Religion and Nationalism in the First World, in: Ethnonationalism in the Contemporary World: Walker Connor and the Study of Nationalism, Daniele Conversi (ed), Routledge, London, 2002.
Crepaz Markus, Trust Beyond Borders: Immigration, the Welfare State, and Identity in Modern Societies, University of Michigan Press, 2007.
Grace Davie, Religion in Modern Europe: A Memory Mutates, Oxford University Press, 2000.
EVS (2015). European Values Study Longitudinal Data File 1981-2008 (EVS 1981-2008).
GESIS Data Archive, Cologne. ZA4804 Data File Version 3.0.0, doi:10.4232/1.12253.WVS (2015).
Gellner Ernest, Nationalism and Modernization, in: Nationalism, Hutchinson, John and Anthony D. Smith (eds), Oxford University Press, 1994.
Gellner Ernest, Nations and Nationalism, Blackwell, Oxford, 1983.
Guelke Adrian, Religion, National Identity and the Conflict in Northern Ireland, in: The Secular and the Sacred, Safran William (ed), Frank Cass, London, 2003.
Hastings Adrian, The Construction of Nationhood: Ethnicity, Religion, and Nationalism Cambridge University Press, 1997.
Jevtic Miroljub, Political Science and Religion, Politics and Religion Journal, Vol. 1, No. 1, 2007.
Kohn Hans, The Idea of Nationalism: A Study in Its Origins and Background, MacMIllan Company, New York, 1944.
Martin David, A General Theory of Secularization, Harper Colophon Books, New York, 1978.
Norris Pippa, Ronald Inglehart. Sacred and Secular: Religion and Politics Worldwide. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004.
Safran William, Introduction, The Secular and the Sacred, Safran William (ed), Frank Cass, London, 2003.
Smith Anthony D., The Origins of Nations, Ethnic and Racial Studies, Vol. 12, No. 3 1989.
WORLD VALUES SURVEY 1981-2014 LONGITUDINAL AGGREGATE, v.20150418.
World Values Survey Association (www.worldvaluessurvey.org). Aggregate File Producer: JDSystems, Madrid SPAIN.
Copyright (c) 2018 Philip Barker
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.