IDEOLOGICAL VIOLENCE TOWARDS THE ETHIOPIAN ORTHODOX TEWAHIDO CHURCH IN THE POST-1960s
The Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahido Church (EOTC) is one of the religious institutions in Ethiopia. EOTC has faced some challenges, which have created both physical and epistemic violence on it. This study analyses the two historical events that the EOTC and its believers faced with epistemic and physical violence. It argues that Ethiopian elites and intellectuals used ideologies and new experiences inappropriately to analyse the existed contexts in these two historical events, which in consequence created violence on the EOTC and its believers. Investigating these historical events that made violence on the EOTC is very important as the EOTC and the believers have been facing with violence so far. Through thematic analysis, this study concludes that considering the EOTC as the past feudal regimes’ tool that oppresses some ethnic groups in Ethiopia; and viewing the EOTC as an Amhara’s institution have been continuing. The study integrates how elite’s inappropriate use of ideologies or new experiences for analysing the existed contexts, which caused violence on EOTC and its believers.
Abat Tarrik, Why Orthodox Christians in Ethiopia Feel under Attack, https://www.ethiopiainsight.com/2020/03/22/why-orthodox-christians-in-ethiopia-feel-under-attack/(Accessed 26 February 2021)
Abbink Jon, A Decade of Ethiopia, Brill, Boston, 2016.
Abbinik Jon, Religion in Public Spaces: Emerging Muslim-Christian polemics in Ethiopia, African Affairs, Vol. 110, No. 439, 2011.
African intellectuals, Mkandawire Thandika (ed.), CODESRIA, Dakar, 2005, p. 16.
Ancel Stéphane and Éloi Ficquet, “The Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahido Church and the Challenge of Modernity”, in: Understanding Contemporary Ethiopia: Monarchy, Revolution and the Legacy of Meles Zenawi, Gérard Prunier and Éloi Ficquet (eds.), Oxford University Press, London, 2015.
Anibal Quijano, Coloniality of power and Eurocentrism in Latin America, International Sociology, Vol. 15, No. 2, 2000.
Asrat Gebru, Lualawinetina democracy beytopia, 5th edition, Addis Ababa, 2016.
Baxter Paul, Towards Identifying Some of the Moral Components of an Oromo National Identity”, in: Ethnicity and the State in Eastern Africa, Mohamed Salih and John Markakis (eds.), Nordisca Afrika institutet, Uppsala, 1998.
Bekele Serawit, Marriage and Empire: Consolidation in Post-Liberation Ethiopia (1941-1974),The Journal of African History, Vol. 61, No.2, 2020.
Bekele Serawit, Religion and Politics in Post-1991 Ethiopia: Making Sense of Bryan S. Turner’s ‘Managing Religions’, Religion, State and Society, Vol. 46, No. 1, 2018.
Bell Daniel, The End of Ideology: On the Exhaustion of Political Ideas in the Fifties, Free Press, New York, 1988.
Brohman John, Universalism, Eurocentrism, and Ideological Bias in Development Studies: from Modernization to Neoliberalism, Third World Quarterly, Vol. 16, No. 1, 1995.
Brooke James, “Under Marxism, Ethiopia’s Christians Abide”, The New York Times, March 9, 1987.
Bulcha Mekuria, “The survival, and Reconstruction Oromo Identity”, in: Being and Becoming Oromo: Historical and Anthropological Enquiries, Paul Baxter, Jan Hultin and Alessandro Triulzi (eds.), Nordic Africa Institute, Uppsala, 1996.
Campbell Ian, The Massacre of Debre Libanos Ethiopia 1937: The Story of Fascism’s Most Shocking Atrocities, Addis Ababa University Press, Addis Ababa, 2014.
Chabal Patrick, Africa: The Politics of Suffering and Smiling, Zed Books, London, 2009.
Christopher Clapham, The Socialist Experience in Ethiopia and its Demise, The Journal of Communist Studies and Transition Politics, Vol. 8, No. 2, 1992.
Dines Mary, The cancer of religion, Index on Censorship, Vol. 12, No. 5, 1986.
Dirlik Arif, Is there History After Eurocentrism? Globalism, Postcolonialism, and the Disavowal of History, Cultural Critique, Vol. 42, 1999.
Doulos Mikael, Christians in Marxist Ethiopia, Religion in Communist Lands, Vol. 14, No. 2, 1986.
Freeden Micheal, Ideology and Political Theory, Journal of Political Ideologies, Vol. 11, No. 1, 2006.
Freeden Micheal, Ideology: A Very Short Introduction, Oxford University Press, New York, 2003.
Gebeyew Worku, Empire and Revolution in Ethiopia: A New Perspective, Addis Ababa, 2018.
Gebissa Ezekiel, The Italian invasion, the Ethiopian empire, and Oromo nationalism: The Significance of the Western Oromo Confederation of 1936, Northeast African Studies, Vol. 9, No. 3, 2002.
Gelaw Yirga, Native Colonialism: Education and the Economy of Violence Against Tradition in Ethiopia, Red Sea Press, New Jersey, 2017.
Gerring John, Ideology: A Definitional Analysis, Political Research Quarterly, Vol. 50. No. 4, 1997.
Gilkes Patrick, Building Ethiopia's Revolutionary Party, MERIP Reports, Horn of Africa: The Coming Storm, Vol. 106, 1982.
Gudina Merera, “Contradictory interpretation of Ethiopian history: The need for a new Consensus”, in: Ethnic federalism: the Ethiopian experience in comparative Perspective, DavidTurton (ed.), Addis Ababa University Press, 2006.
Gudina Merera, The Elite and the Quest for Peace, Democracy, and Development in Ethiopia: Lessons to be Learnt, Northeast African Studies, Vol. 10, No. 2, 2003.
Hable Sellassie Sergew, Ancient and Medieval History, United Printers, Addis Ababa, 1972.
Hailemariam Mengistu, Tiglachin, Volume 1, Tsehay Publishers, Los Angeles, 2012.
Haustein Jörg and Terje Østebø, EPRDF's Revolutionary Democracy and Religious Plurality: Islam and Christianity in post-Derg Ethiopia, Journal of Eastern African Studies, Vol. 5, No. 4, 2011.
Hussein Ahmed, Coexistence and/or confrontation? Towards a Reappraisal of Christian-Muslim Encounter in Contemporary Ethiopia, Journal of Religion in Africa, Vol. 36, No. 1, 2006.
Jalata Asafa, Fighting Against the Injustice of the State and Globalization Comparing the African American and Oromo Movements, Palgrave, London, 2001.
James Jeffrey, “Uptick in Church Burnings Raises Alarm in Ethiopia”, available at: https://www.pri.org/stories/2019-09-16/uptick-church-burnings-raises-alarm-ethiopia (accessed February 26, 2021).
James Jeffrey, “Why are Ethiopia’s churches under attack?”. available at: https://newafricanmagazine.com/20840/ (accessed February 26, 2021).
Jevtic Miroljub, Political Science and Religion, Politics and Religion Journal, Vol. 1, No. 1, 2007.
Kebede Messay, Africa’s Quest for a Philosophy of Decolonization, Brill, Amsterdam and NewYork, 2004.
Kebede Messay, “From Marxism-Leninism to Ethnicity: the Sideslips of Ethiopian From Marxism-Leninism to Ethnicity: the Sideslips of Ethiopian Elitism”, available at: https://scholarworks.wmich.edu/africancenter_icad_archive/12/ (accessed February 15, 2021).
Khisa Moses, Politics of Exclusion and Institutional Transformation in Ethiopia, Third World Quarterly, Vol. 40, No. 3, 2019.
Kiruga Morris, “In Ethiopia, Religious Extremism Fans the Flames of Ethnic Division”, available at: https://www.theafricareport.com/17355/in-ethiopia-religious-extremism-fans-the-flames-of-ethnic-division/ (accessed February 26, 2021).
Knuth Rebecca, Libricide: The Regime-Sponsored Destruction of Books and Libraries in the Twentieth Century, Praeger, London, 2003.
Layne Tamrat, “TPLF and Oromo Democratic Parties are not different in practice”, available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7iglgB4Sh_4 (accessed February 26, 2021).
Lerebo Haile, The Orthodox Church and the State in the Ethiopian Revolution, 1974–84, Religion in Communist Lands, Vol. 14, No. 2, 1986.
Leta Lencho, “Lencho Leta and Lencho Bati on Sidama”, available at: https://www.gurshatube.app/watch.php?vid=6d640f8a4 (accessed February 25, 2019).
Leta Lencho, The horn of Africa as common homeland: The State and Self-Determination in the Era of Heightened Globalization, Wilfrid Laurier University Press, 2004.
Levine Donald, Wax and Gold, Tradition & Innovation in Ethiopian Culture, The University of Chicago Press, 1972.
Lewis Herbert, “The Development of Oromo Political consciousness from 1958-1994”, in: Being and Becoming Oromo: Historical and Anthropological Enquiries, Paul Baxter, Jan Hultin and Alessandro Triulzi (eds.), Nordic Africa Institute, Uppsala, 1996.
Lindner Kolja, Marx’s Eurocentrism: Postcolonial Studies and Marx scholarship, Radical Philosophy, Vol. 161, 2010.
Malesevic Sinisa, Identity as ideology: Understanding ethnicity and nationalism, Springer, London, 2006.
Mann Michael, The Dark Side of Democracy: Explaining Ethnic Cleansing, Cambridge University Press, 2005.
Markakis John and Nega Ayele, Class and Revolution in Ethiopia, Read Sea Press, New Jersey, 1986.
Markakis John, Ethiopia: The Last Two Frontiers, James Currey, United Kingdom, 2011.
Markakis John, The Military State and Ethiopia's Path to ‘Socialism’, Review of African Political Economy, Vol.8, No.21, 1981.
Mazrui Ali, “The Seven Biases of Eurocentrism: A Diagnostic Introduction”, in: The Challenge of Eurocentrism, Rajani Kanth(ed.), Palgrave, New York, 2009.
Mbembe Achille, On the Postcolony, University of California Press, Berkeley and Los Angeles, 2001.
Megersa Gemechu, “LTV WORLD: LTV Show: It is a Myth to Believe that the TPLF Has Divided us”, available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sAsOwq3Rx0M (accessed March 6, 2021).
Mekonnen Walleligne, On the Question of Nationalities in Ethiopia, Struggle, November 19, 1969
Mennasemay Maimire, Ethiopian Political Theory, Democracy, and Surplus History, International Journal of Ethiopian Studies, Vol. 2, No. 1, 2005.
Mignolo Walter, The Darker Side of Western Modernity: Global Futures, Decolonial Options, Duke University Press, Durham and London, 2011
Mudimbe Valentin-Yves, The Invention of Africa, Indiana University Press, London, 1988.
Ndlovu-Gatsheni Sabelo, Coloniality of power in postcolonial Africa, CODESRIA, Dakar, 2013.
Negash Tefera, Ideology and Power in TPLF’s Ethiopia: A Historical Reversal in the Making?, African Affairs, Vol. 118, No. 472, 2019.
Parlesák Adolf, Yehabesha Jebdu, (translated by Techane Jobire), Addis Ababa University Press, Addis Ababa, 2003.
Purvis Trevor, “Marxism & Nationalism”, in: Marxism and Social Science, Andrew Gamble, David Marsh and Tony Tant (eds.), University of Illinois Press, Urbana and Chicago, 1999.
Said Edward, “Introduction”, in: Blaming the Victims: Spurious Scholarship and the Palestinian Question, Edward Said and Christopher Hitchens (eds.), Verso, New York, 1988.
Said Edward, Orientalism, Penguin Books, New York, 2003.
Salih Mohamed and John Markakis, “Introduction”, in: Ethnicity and the state in eastern Africa, Mohamed Salih and John Markakis (eds.), Nordisca Afrika institutet,Uppsala, 1998.
Salvadore Matteo, “The Jesuit Mission to Ethiopia (1555–1634) and the Death of Prester John”, in: World-Building and the Early Modern Imagination, Allison Kavey (ed.), Palgrave Macmillan, 2010.
Sandford Christine, Ethiopia under Haile Selassie, JM Dent & Sons, London, 1946.
Santhosh R. and Dayal Paler, Ethnicization of religion in practice? Recasting competing for communal mobilizations in coastal Karnataka, South India, Ethnicities, Vol. 21, No. 3, 2021.
Táíwòa Olúfémi, How Colonialism: Preempted Modernity in Africa, Indiana University Press, Bloomington and Indianapolis, 2010.
Tamene Getnet, Feature of the EOTC and clergy, Asian and African Studies, Vol. 7, No. 1, 1998.
Teka Tegegne, “Amhara Ethnicity in the Making”, in: Ethnicity and the state in eastern Africa, Mohamed Salih and John Markakis (eds.), Nordisca Afrika institutet, Uppsala, 1998.
Temin Jon and Yoseph Badwaza, Aspirations and Realities in Africa: VI. Ethiopia’s Quit Revolution, Journal of Democracy, Vol. 30, No. 3, 2019.
Tibebu Teshale, “ESAT Ethiopia Nege Gizaw With Prof. Teshale Tibebu Part 1”, available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_t3FkpwVXOk (accessed January 21, 2021).
Tibebu Teshale, Hegel and the Third World: The Making of Eurocentrism in World History, Syracuse University Press, New York, 2011.
Tibebu Teshale, Modernity, Eurocentrism, and Radical Politics in Ethiopia, 1961–1991, African Identities, Vol. 6, No. 4, 2008.
Tibebu Teshale, The Making of Modern Ethiopia, Red Sea Press, Asmara, 1995.
Valentino Benjamin, Final Solutions, Cornell University Press, Ithaca, 2004.
Vestal Theodore, Ethiopia: A Post-Cold War African State, Greenwood, London, 1999.
Wolfe Patrick, Settler colonialism and the elimination of the native, Journal of Genocide Research, Vol. 8, No. 4, 2006.
“Ethiopia Justice Needed for Deadly October Violence”, Human Rights Watch (HRW).
Available at: https://www.hrw.org/news/2020/04/01/ethiopia-justice-needed-deadly-october-violence (accessed February 19, 2021).
Copyright (c) 2021 Solomon Molla Ademe
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.