MILITANT AND COOPERATIVE INTERNATIONALISM AMONG AMERICAN RELIGIOUS PUBLICS
Although there has been much speculation about the way that religion shapes American attitudes on foreign policy, there are few empirical analyses of that influence. This paper draws on a large national sample of the public in 2008 to classify religious groups on Eugene Wittkopf’s (1990) classic dimensions of foreign policy attitudes, militant internationalism and cooperative internationalism. We find rather different religious constituencies for each dimension and demonstrate the influence of ethnoreligious and theological factors on both. Combining the two dimensions, we show that American religious groups occupy different locations in Wittkopf’s hardliner, internationalist, accommodationist, and isolationist camps.
Albright, Madeleine K., The Mighty and the Almighty, New York: HarperCollins, 2006.
Barker, David C., Jon Hurwitz, and Traci L. Nelson, Of Crusades and Culture Wars: ‘Messianic’ Militarism and Political Conflict in the United States, Journal of Politics 70, 2008.
Baumgartner, Jody C., Peter L. Francia, Jonathan S. Morris, A Clash of Civilizations? The Influence of Religion on Public Opinion of U.S. Foreign Policy in the Middle East, Political Research Quarterly 61, 2008.
Boyer, Paul S., Biblical Policy and Foreign Policy, In: Quoting God, ed. Claire H. Badaracco. Waco, TX: Baylor University Press, 2005.
Chittick, William O., Keith R. Billingsley, and Rick Travis, A Three-Dimensional Model of American Foreign Policy Beliefs, International Studies Quarterly 39, 1995.
Collins, Todd, Kenneth A. Wink, James L. Guth, and C. Don Livingston, The Religious Affiliation of Representatives and Support for Funding the Iraq War,
Politics and Religion 4(3), 2011.
Croft, Stuart, Christian Evangelicals and U.S. Foreign Policy, in: Inderjeet Parmar, Linda B. Miller, and Mark Ledwidge, ed. New Directions in US Foreign Policy.
London: Routledge, 2009.
den Dulk, Kevin R., Evangelical ‘Internationalists’ and U.S. Foreign Policy During the Bush Administration, in: Mark J. Rozell and Gleaves Whitney, ed. Religion
and the Bush Presidency, New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2007.
Derber, Charles, and Yale R. Magrass, Morality Wars, Boulder, CO: Paradigm Publishers, 2008.
Domke, David, God Willing? Political Fundamentalism in the White House, the ‘War on Terror’ and the Echoing Press, London: Pluto Press, 2004.
Dueck, Colin, Hard Line: The Republican Party and U.S. Foreign Policy Since World War II, Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2010.
Farr, Thomas F., World of Faith and Freedom, New York: Oxford University Press, 2008.
Froese, Paul, and F. Carson Mencken, A U.S. Holy War? The Effects of Religion on Iraq War Policy Attitudes, Social Science Quarterly 90, 2009.
George, Susan, Hijacking America: How the Religious and Secular Right Changed What Americans Think, Cambridge, UK: Polity Press, 2008.
Gerson, Michael, Heroic Conservatism, New York: HarperOne, 2007.
Green, John C., What Happened to the Values Voter? Believers and the 2008 Election. First Things 191(March), 2009.Green, John C., Lyman A. Kellstedt, Corwin E. Smidt, and James L. Guth, How the Faithful Voted: Religious Communities and the Presidential Vote, in: A Matter of Faith? Religion in the 2004 Election, ed. David E. Campbell, Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press, 2007.
Greenberg, Anna, and Kenneth D. Wald, Still Liberal After All These Years?, in: Jews in American Politics, ed. L. Sandy Maisel and Ira N. Forman. Lanham, MD:
Rowman and Littlefield, 2001.
Guth, James L., Religion and Roll Calls: Religious Influences on the U.S. House of Representatives, 1997-2002, Paper presented at the annual meeting of
the American Political Science Association, Chicago, 2007.
Guth, James L., Religion and American Public Opinion: Foreign Policy Issues, in: The Oxford Handbook of Religion and American Politics, ed. Corwin E. Smidt,
Lyman A. Kellstedt, and James L. Guth, New York: Oxford University Press, 2009.
Guth, James L., Religion and American Attitudes on Foreign Policy, 2008: Testing Theories of Religious, Cultural and Ideological Influences, Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Studies Association, Montreal, 2011.
Guth, James L., Obama, Religious Politics and the Culture Wars, in: Transforming America: Barack Obama in the White House, ed. Steven Schier, Lanham
MD: Rowman and Littlefield, 2011.
Guth, James L., The Religious Roots of Foreign Policy Exceptionalism, The Review of Faith & International Affairs 10(2), 2012.
Guth, James L., Religion and American Public Attitudes on War and Peace, 2012, Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Midwest Political Science
Association, Chicago, 2013.
Hanson, Eric O., The Catholic Church in World Politics, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1987.
Hehir, J. Bryan, Religious Freedom and U.S. Foreign Policy, in: The Influence of Faith: Religious Groups and U.S. Foreign Policy, ed. Elliott Abrams. Lanham, MD:
Rowman and Littlefield, 2001.
Hero, Alfred O., American Religious Groups View Foreign Policy: Trends in Rankand-File Opinion, 1937-1969, Durham: Duke University Press, 1973.
Hertzke, Allen D., Freeing God’s Children: The Unlikely Alliance for Global Human Rights, Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 2004.
Holsti, Ole R., Public Opinion and American Foreign Policy, Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2004.
Hout, Michael, and Claude S. Fischer, Why Americans Have No Religious Preference: Politics and Generations, American Sociological Review 67, 2002.
Hunter, James D., Culture Wars, New York: Basic Books, 1991.
Huntington, Samuel P., Who Are We? The Challenges to America’s National Identity, New York: Simon and Schuster, 2004.
Inboden, William, Religion and American Foreign Policy, 1945-1960: The Soul of Containment, New York: Cambridge University Press, 2008.Judis, John, The Chosen Nation: The Influence of Religion on U.S. Foreign Policy, Policy Brief 37, Washington, DC: Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, 2005.
Kellstedt, Lyman A., and James L. Guth, Survey Research: Religion and Electoral Behavior in the United States, 1936-2008, in: Political Science Research in
Practice, ed. Akan Malici and Elizabeth S. Smith. New York and London: Routledge, 2013.
Kidd, Thomas S., American Christians and Islam: Evangelical Culture and Muslims from the Colonial Period to the Age of Terrorism, Princeton, NJ: Princeton
University Press, 2009.
Kohut, Andrew, and Bruce Stokes, America Against the World, New York: Henry Holt, 2006.
Kristof, Nicholas, “Following God Abroad.” New York Times, May 21, 2002.
Kurtz, Lester, and Kelly Goran Fulton, Love Your Enemies? Protestants and United States Foreign Policy, in: The Quiet Hand of God: Faith-Based Activism and
the Public Role of Mainline Protestantism, ed. Robert Wuthnow and John H. Evans. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2002.
Laurent, Eric, Bush’s Secret World: Religion, Big Business and Hidden Networks. trs. Eric Brown, Cambridge, UK; Polity Press, 2004.
Layman, Geoffrey, The Great Divide: Religious and Cultural Conflict in American Party Politics, New York: Columbia University Press, 2001.
Maggiotto, Michael A., and Eugene R. Wittkopf, American Public Attitudes toward Foreign Policy, International Studies Quarterly 25, 1981.
McCleary, Rachel, Global Compassion: Private Voluntary Organizations and U.S. Foreign Policy since 1939,New York: Oxford University Press, 2009.
McCartney, Paul, American Nationalism and U.S. Foreign Policy from September 11 to the Iraq War, Political Science Quarterly 119, 2004.
Marsden, Lee, For God’s Sake: The Christian Right and US Foreign Policy, London: Zed Books, 2008.
Marsh, Charles, Wayward Christian Soldiers. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2007.
Martin, William, The Christian Right and American Foreign Policy, Foreign Policy 114 (Spring), 1999.
Mayer, Jeremy, Christian Fundamentalists and Public Opinion toward the Middle East, Social Science Quarterly 85, 2004.
Mead, Walter Russell, Power, Terror, Peace, and War, New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2004.
Mead, Walter Russell, Religion and U.S. Foreign Policy, Foreign Affairs 85 (September/October), 2006.
Northcott, Michael, An Angel Directs the Storm: Apocalyptic Religion and American Empire, London and New York: I.B.Taurus, 2004.
Page, Benjamin I., with Marshall M. Bouton, The Foreign Policy Disconnect: What Americans Want from Our Leaders But Don’t Get, Chicago: University of Chicago
Peffley, Mark, and John Hurwitz, Models of Attitude Constraint in Foreign Affairs, Political Behavior 15, 1993.
Pew Research Center, America’s Place in the World 2009, Washington, DC: Pew Research Center for the People & the Press, 2009.
Phillips, Kevin, American Theocracy: The Peril and Politics of Radical Religion, Oil and Borrowed Money in the 21st Century, New York: Viking, 2006.
Preston, Andrew, Sword of the Spirit, Shield of Faith, New York: Knopf, 2012.
Rock, Stephen R., Faith and Foreign Policy, New York: Continuum, 2011.
Ruotsila, Markku, The Origins of Christian Anti-Internationalism, Washington DC: Georgetown University Press, 2008.
Singer, Peter, The President of Good and Evil: The Ethics of George W. Bush, New York: E.P. Dutton, 2004.
Skidmore, David, The Obama Presidency and US Foreign Policy: Where’s the Multilateralism?, International Studies Perspectives 13, 2012.
Smidt, Corwin E., Religion and American Attitudes towards Islam and an Invasion of Iraq, Sociology of Religion 66, 2005.
Smidt, Corwin E., Lyman A. Kellstedt, and James L. Guth, ed., The Oxford Handbook of Religion and American Politics, New York: Oxford University Press, 2009.
Swierenga, Robert P., Religion and American Voting Behavior, 1830s to 1930s, in: The Oxford Handbook of Religion and American Politics, ed. Corwin E.
Smidt, Lyman A. Kellstedt, and James L. Guth, New York: Oxford University Press, 2009.
Tipton, Steven M., Public Pulpits: Methodists and Mainline Churches in the Moral Argument of Public Life, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2007.
Uslaner, Erik M., American Interests in the Balance, in: Interest Group Politics, 7th ed., ed. Allan J. Cigler and Burdett Loomis. Washington, DC: CQ Press, 2007.
Urban, Hugh B., The Secrets of the Kingdom; Religion and Concealment in the Bush Administration, Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield, 2007.
Wald, Kenneth, Religious Elites and Public Opinion: The Impact of the Bishops’ Peace Pastoral, Review of Politics 54, 1992.
Williams, Rhys H., Cultural Wars in American Politics, New York: Aldine de Gruyter, 1997.
Wittkopf, Eugene R., Faces of Internationalism: Public Opinion and Foreign Policy, Durham: Duke University Press, 1990.
Weyl, Ben, In Human Rights, A Bridge to the Left, CQ Weekly 67, 2009.
Wuthnow, Robert, The Restructuring of American Religion, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1988.
Wuthnow, Robert, Boundless Faith: The Global Outreach of American Churches. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2009.
Copyright (c) 2016 James L. Guth
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.