• Igboin Benson Ohihon Adekunle Ajasin University, Nigeria


In recent times, the resurgence of critical security questions has gained prominence in global tabloid, consciousness and discourse. From Tunisia, Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Yemen to Syria; the Nigerian experiences of the Golden Jubilee Independence bombing, for which MEND claimed responsibility, the Boko Haram incendiary that has gravitated into suicide bombing, among others are extant. The causes of these ‘security crises’ can be traced squarely to fundamentalisms: religious fundamentalism or religious nationalism; hegemonic fundamentalism, capitalist fundamentalism, ethnic fundamentalism, existential fundamentalism, ethical fundamentalism, etc. These explain the deepening and proliferation of conflicts in countries around the globe. The response to this state of affairs has been ‘sermon’ on tolerance in the face of aggressive terror. Tolerance may not have been properly conceptualized. The thrust of this paper, therefore, is to stimulate interest in the conceptualization of these terms so that their understanding would pave the way for long lasting solutions. In so doing, the paper will employ historical and philosophical approaches to situate the arguments.

Author Biography

Igboin Benson Ohihon, Adekunle Ajasin University, Nigeria

Department of Religion and African Culture, Adekunle Ajasin University, Akungba-Akoko, Ondo State, Nigeria

Keywords: Boko Haram, religion, fundamentalism, securitization, bastard child, violence


Abubakar, M. S. (2011), “Islam and Peace-building in West Africa” lecture delivered at The Samuel L. and Elizabeth Jodidi Annual Lecture at Weatherhead Center for International Affairs, Harvard University, USA, 9th October.
Akinade, A. E. (2002) “The Precarious Agenda: Christian-Muslim Relations in Contemporary Nigeria” in Journal of Islam and Christian Muslim Relations, online edition.
Ali, T. (2002), The Clash of Fundamentalism: Crusades, Jihads and Modernity. London: Verso.
Appleby, R. S. (1993), “Religious Fundamentalism as a Global Phenomenon” in The Struggle Over the Past: Fundamentalism in the Modern World, Vol. 35, Lanham:
University Press of America.
Barcalow, E. (1994), Moral Philosophy: Theory and Issues, California: Wadsworth Publishing House.
Beznjuk, D. K. (2007), “National and Religious Security of Belorussia” Politics and Religion. Vol 1,No 1.
Blaufuss, M. S. (Dec. 2000), “Countering Religious Violence: The Power of Symbols” in Religion and Society, vol. 47, No.4, India: CISRS Publication Trust.
Daily Trust, Saturday July 9, 2011.
Duff, G. (2011), “Nigeria: Targeted for destruction” Daily Trust, Dec. 27.
Dukor, M. (2007), “Secularism, Fundamentalism and Freedom” in I. Odimegwu, G. Ezeani and F. Aghamelu (eds.), Philosophy, Democracy and Conflicts in Africa, Akwa: Department of Philosophy.
Fabian, J. (1998) Moments of Freedom: Anthropology and Popular Culture, Charlottesville, VA: University of Virginia.
Falola, T. (2008) The Power of African Culture, Rochester: University of Rochester Press.
Field, C. D. (June/Sept. 2011), “Young British Muslims since 9/11: A Composite Attitudinal Profile” Religion, State & Society, 39/2&3.
Guinan, M. D. (1994), Fundamentalism: Perspectives on the Problem, Nairobi: Paulines.
Hertskovits, J. (2012), “In Nigeria, Boko Haram is not the problem”
Hiiboro, K. E. (2008) Human Rights, the Church and the Post-war Sudan, Nairobi: Pauline Publications.
Hulmes, E. (1979) Commitment and Neutrality in Religious Education, London: Geoffrey Chapman.
Huntington, S. P. (1996), The Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of the World Order, New York: Simon & Schuster.
Igboin, B. O. (June 2007), “A Philosophical Reaction to the Conceptual Ambiguities in the Use of Tolerance by Inagbor, Enuwosa and Ubrurhe” IRORO: Journal of Arts, 12/1&2.
Igboin, B. O. (2007), “The Need for Religious Tolerance in Nigeria” JAPHIL: Journal of Applied Philosophy, 1/1.
Igboin, B. O. (2010) “Religious Fundamentalism in a Globalised World” in C. O. Isiramen et. al. (eds.) Issues in Religious Studies and Philosophy, Ibadan: En-Joy
Igboin, B. O. (June 2004), “The Oneness of God through the Prism of Positive Tolerance” KIABARA: Journal of Humanities, 10/1 Rains Issue
Ilesanmi, S. O. (2011), “Sharia Reasoning, Political Legitimacy, and Democratic Vision” Journal of Church and State, 53/1.
Jevtic M. (2007.) Political Science and Religion, Politics and Religion, Vol 1, No 1.
Johnson, J. T. (2011), Tracing the Contours of the Jihad of Individual Duty” Journal of Church and State, 53/1.
Kepel, G. (1994) The Rage of God: The Resurgence of Islam, Christianity and Judaism in the Modern World, Cambridge: Polity Press.
Kilcullen, D. (2007) “Counter-insurgency”, Survival, 48/4.
Kukah, M. H. (2010), “Boko Haram: Some Reflections on Causes and Effects” S. O. Anyanwu, and I. Nwanaju, (eds.), Boko Haram: Religious Conflicts and
Dialogue Initiatives in Nigeria, Owerri: Edu-Edy.
Mala, S. B. (1985), “Fanaticism in Religion: A Naughty Child of a Difficult Mother” in Orita: Ibadan Journal of Religious Studies, XVI1/2.
Mandel, D. R. (2002), “Evil and the Instigation of Collective Violence” ASAP: Analyses of Social Issues and Public Policy 2/1.
Marty, M. E. (1996), “Fundamentalism” in Dictionary of Ethics, Theology and Society, London: Routledge.
Matevski, Z, (2007.) “Religious Dialogue and Tolerance – Theoretical and Practical Experiences of Differences and Similarities” Politics and Religion. Vol 1,No 1.
McDonald, L. Z. (June/Sept. 2011), “Securing Identities, Resisting Terror: Muslim Youth Work in the UK and its Implications for Security” Religion, State &
Society, 39/2&3.
Moyo, D. (2009) Dead Aid: Why Aid is not Working and how there is a Better Way for Africa, NY: Farrar, Straus and Giroux.
Obadare, E. (Dec. 2007), “White-collar Fundamentalism: Interrogating Youth Religiosity on Nigerian Campus” The Journal of Modern African Studies, 45/4.
Oh, I. (2011), “On Democracy, Violence, and the Promise of Islam” Journal of Church and State, 53/1.
Oke, M. (Oct. 2002) “A Philosophical Approach to Positive Tolerance” Asia Journal of Theology, 16/2.
Olorode, O. (2011), ““Security” Crisis: Implications for National Integration and Development” an unpublished public lecture.
Olorode, O. (2012), “The Nigerian Crisis: Problems of, and Programme for, Revolutionary Transformation” 8th Chief Gani Fawehinmi Annual Lecture/
Symposium under the auspices of the Nigerian Bar Association, Ikeja Branch at Air Port Hotel, Ikeja on 15th, January.
Olorode, O. (n.p.) “Boko Haram: Wrong Questions, Wrong Answers” an unpublished paper.
Oraegbunam, I. K. E. (2007), The Metaphysical Foundations of Armed Conflicts: Implications for Human Dignity and Global Peace” in I. Odimegwu,
G. Ezeani and F. Aghamelu (eds.), Philosophy, Democracy and Conflicts in Africa, Akwa: Department of Philosophy.
Ozzano, L. (2009.) “Religious Fundamentalism and Democracy” Politics and Religion, Vol. 3, No. 1.
Ryerson, C. A. (Dec. 2000), “Faiths and Fundamentalisms: Recipe for Violence” in Religion and Society, vol. 47, no. 4, India: CISRS Publication Trust.
Shenk, C. E. (1988), When Kingdoms Clash: The Christian and Ideologies, Ontario: Herald Press.
Smith, J. I. (2002), “Religious Tolerance” in Journal of Islam and Christian Muslim Relations, online edition.
Spalek, B. (2010), “Community Policing, Trust and Muslim Communities in relation to New Terrorism” Politics & Policy, 38/4.
Spalek, B. (June/Sept. 2011), “‘New Terrorism’ and Crime Prevention Initiatives involving Muslim young in the UK: Research and Policy Contexts” Religion, State & Society, 39/2&3: 191-207.
The Punch Saturday 9th July, 2011.
Ujomu, P. O. (2006) “Youth Securitization and the Moral Foundation of Social Order and Security in a Developing Society” JAPHIL: Journal of Applied Philosophy, 1/1.
Vertigans, S. (2010) “British Muslims and the UK Government’s “War on Terror” within Evidence of a clash of Civilizations or Emergent De-civilizing
Processes?” The British Journal of Sociology, 61.
Vlas, N. (2010) “Is Religion Inherently Violent? Religion as a Threat and Promise for the Global Security” Politics and Religion, Vol. IV, No, 2,2010.
Williams, B. G. (2004), “Crushing Wahhabi Fundamentalists in Central Asia and the Caucasus: Subplot to the Global Struggle against Al Qa’aida or
Suppression of Legitimate Religious Opposition?” P. C. Lucas, and T. Robbins (eds.), New Religious Movements in the 21st Century: Legal, Political, and Social Challenges in Global Perspective, New York: Routledge.
Zizek, S. (2009), Violence. London: Profile Books.