LEFT, RIGHT, AND ANTISEMITISM IN EUROPEAN PUBLIC OPINION

Main Article Content

Jeffrey E. Cohen

Abstract

Antisemitism has long been found on both the political far-right and farleft. The recent rise in antisemitism worldwide raises the question of whether current antisemitism is found more with the far-right or far-left, the former a function of right-wing populism and the latter with what has been termed the new antisemitism. This paper uses data from the 2014 round of the European Social Survey in 20 nations to test for the connection between ideological selfplacement and antisemitic attitudes in mass publics. Analysis finds greater levels of antisemitism with the extreme far-right compared to the far-left, but extreme leftists appear slightly more antisemitic than moderate leftist. Further, there is less antisemitism than anti-Muslim and anti-Roma (Gypsy) attitudes at all positions on the left-right continuum. The conclusion puts the findings into context and suggests directions for future research.

Article Details

How to Cite
COHEN, Jeffrey E.. LEFT, RIGHT, AND ANTISEMITISM IN EUROPEAN PUBLIC OPINION. Politics and Religion Journal, [S.l.], v. 12, n. 2, p. 341-371, nov. 2018. ISSN 1820-659X. Available at: <https://politicsandreligionjournal.com/index.php/prj/article/view/327>. Date accessed: 12 dec. 2018.
Section
ANALYSES

References

ADL, accessed May 13, 2018, http://global100.adl.org/.
ADL, Audit of AntiSemitic Incidents Anti-Defamation League, 2017, httpswwwadlorgsitesAntiSemitic20Audit20Print_vf2pdf
Adorno Theodor W, Else Frenkel-Brunswik, Daniel J. Levinson, et al, The authoritarian personality, Harper & Brothers, New York, 1950.
Ambrosewicz-Jacobs Jolanta, Attitudes of young Poles toward Jews in post-1989 Poland, East European Politics and Societies, Vol. 14, No. 3, 2000.
Antoniou Giorgos, Elias Dinas, Spyros Kosmidis, “Collective Victimhood and Social Prejudice: A Post-Holocaust Theory of anti-Semitism”, Chap, 2015.
Arendt Hannah, Antisemitism: Part one of the origins of totalitarianism, Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, New York, 2012 [1958].
Bauer Paul C, Pablo Barberá, Kathrin Ackermann, et al, Is the Left-Right Scale a Valid Measure of Ideology?, Political Behavior, Vol. 39, No. 3, 2017.
Baum Steven K, Masato Nakazawa, Anti-Semitism versus Anti-Israeli Sentiment, Journal of Religion & Society, Vol. 9, No. 1, 2007.
Beattie Peter, Anti-Semitism and opposition to Israeli government policies: the roles of prejudice and information, Ethnic and Racial Studies, Vol. 40 No. 15, 2017.
Becker Julia C, Ulrich Wagner, Oliver Christ, Consequences of the 2008 financial crisis for intergroup relations: The role of perceived threat and causal attributions, Group Processes & Intergroup Relations, Vol. 14, No. 6, 2011.
Ben-Moshe Danny, The New Anti-Semitism in Europe: The Islamic Dimension of, and Jewish Belonging in, the EU, Islam and Christian–Muslim Relations, Vol. 26, No. 2, 2015.
Bergmann Werner, Anti-Semitic Attitudes in Europe: A Comparative Perspective, Journal of Social Issues, Vol. 64, No. 2, 2008.
Bergmann Werner, Rainer Erb, “Anti-Semitism in the late 1990s”, in: Germans or Foreigners? Attitudes Toward Ethnic Minorities in Post-Reunification Germany, New York, Palgrave MacMillian, 2003.
Bilewicz Michal, Ireneusz Krzeminski, Anti-Semitism in Poland and Ukraine: The belief in Jewish control as a mechanism of scapegoating, International Journal of Conflict and Violence, Vol. 4, No. 2, 2010.
Bilewicz Michał, Mikołaj Winiewski, Zuzanna Radzik, Antisemitism in Poland: Economic, Religious, and Historical Aspects, Journal for the study of antisemitism, Vol. 4, No. 2, 2012.
Bobako Monika, The Palestinian Knot: The ‘New Anti-Semitism’, Islamophobia and the Question of Postcolonial Europe, Theory, Culture & Society, Vol. 35, No. 3, 2017.
Bor Jacob, Diverging life expectancies and voting patterns in the 2016 US Presidential election, American journal of public health, Vol. 107, No. 10, 2017.
Brown Wendy, “Rights and Identity in Late Modernity: Revisiting the Jewish Question”, in: Identities, Politics, and Rights, edited by Sarat, Austin and Thomas Kearns, Ann Arbor, MI, University of Michigan Press, 1995.
Bustikova Lenka, Petra Guasti, Hating Thy Imaginary Neighbor: An Analysis of Antisemitism in Slovakia, Journal for the study of antisemitism, Vol. 4, No. 2, 2012.
Caprara Gian Vittorio, Michele Vecchione, Shalom H. Schwartz, et al, Basic values, ideological self-placement, and voting: A cross-cultural study, Cross-Cultural Research, Vol. 51, No. 4, 2017.
Cohen Florette, Lee Jussim, Gautam Bhasin, et al, The modern antisemitism israel model an empirical relationship between modern antisemitism and opposition to israel, Conflict communication, Vol. 10 No. 1, 2011.
Cooper Leo, In the Shadow of the Polish Eagle: The Poles, the Holocaust and Beyond, Palgrave MacMillan, London, 2000.
Crandall Christian S, Colby Cohen, The personality of the stigmatizer: Cultural world view, conventionalism, and self-esteem, Journal of Research in Personality Vol. 28, No. 4, 1994.
D’Alessio Stewart J, Lisa Stolzenberg, Anti-Semitism in America: The Dynamics of Prejudice, Sociological Inquiry Vol. 61, No. 3, 1991.
DellaPergola Sergio, End of jewish/non-jewish dichotomy? evidence from the 2013 pew survey, American Jewish year book, Vol. 114, No. 1, 2014.
Diamantopoulos Adamantios, Marko Sarstedt, Christoph Fuchs, et al, Guidelines for choosing between multi-item and single-item scales for construct measurement: a predictive validity perspective, Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, Vol. 40, No. 3, 2012.
Dinnerstein Leonard, Is there a new anti-semitism in the United States?, Society, Vol. 41, No. 2, 2004.
Dinnerstein Leonard, Antisemitism in america: An update, 1995-2012, Journal for the study of antisemitism, Vol. 4 No. 2, 2012.
Duckitt John, “Authoritarianism and dogmatism”, in: Handbook of individual differences in social behavior, edited by Leary, Mark R. and Rick H. Hoyle, New York, Guilford Press, 2009.
Dunbar Edward, The prejudiced personality, racism, and anti-Semitism: The PR scale forty years later, Journal of Personality Assessment, Vol. 65, No. 2, 1995.
Dunbar Edward, Lucie Simonova, Individual difference and social status predictors of anti-Semitism and racism US and Czech findings with the prejudice/tolerance and right wing authoritarianism scales, International Journal of Intercultural Relations Vol. 27, No. 5, 2003.
Eijk Cees van der, Hermann Schmitt, Tanja Binder, “The Left-Right Dimension”, in: The European Voter, edited by Thomassen, Jacques, New York, Oxford University Press, 2005.
Ekehammar Bo, Nazar Akrami, Tadesse Araya, Gender differences in implicit prejudice, Personality and Individual Differences Vol. 34, No. 8, 2003.
Ellerin Milton, Rightist Extremism, The American Jewish Year Book, 1966.
Flannery Edward H, The anguish of the Jews: Twenty-three centuries of antisemitism,Paulist Press, 1985.
Flowerman Samuel H, Marie Jahoda, The study of man—polls on anti-Semitism. How much do they tell us, Commentary, Vol. 1, No. 1, 1946.
Freeden Michael, Ideologies and political theory: A conceptual approach,Oxford University Press, New York, 1996.
Frindte Wolfgang, Susan Wettig, Dorit Wammetsberger, Old and New Anti-Semitic Attitudes in the Context of Authoritarianism and Social Dominance Orientation--Two Studies in Germany, Peace and Conflict: Journal of Peace Psychology,Vol. 11, No. 3, 2005.
Gerstenfeld Manfred, Anti-Israelism and Anti-Semitism: Common Characteristics and Motifs, Jewish Political Studies Review, Vol. 19, No. 1/2, 2007.
Gibson James L, Marc Morjé Howard, Russian anti-Semitism and the scapegoating of Jews, British Journal of Political Science Vol. 37, No. 2, 2007.
Gonsalkorale Karen, Jeffrey W. Sherman, Karl Christoph Klauer, Aging and prejudice: Diminished regulation of automatic race bias among older adults, Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, Vol. 45, No. 2, 2009.
Gough Harrison G, Studies of social intolerance: I. Some psychological and sociological correlates of anti-Semitism, The Journal of Social Psychology Vol. 33, No. 2, 1951a.
Gough Harrison G, Studies of social intolerance: II. A personality scale for anti-Semitism, The Journal of Social Psychology Vol. 33, No. 2, 1951b.
Greene Jay, P, Ian Kingsbury, The relationship between public and private schooling and antisemitism, Journal of school choice, Vol. 11 No. 1, 2017.
Hainmueller Jens, Daniel J Hopkins, Public attitudes toward immigration, Annual Review of Political Science, Vol. 17, No. 1, 2014.
Hampsher-Monk Iain, A History of Modern Political Thought: major political thinkers from Hobbes to Marx, Blackwell, Oxford, UK, 1992.
Herrin Jeph, Dan Witters, Brita Roy, et al, “Population well-being and electoral shifts,” Chap, In: PloS one, 2018.
Huber John D, Values and partisanship in left-right orientations: Measuring ideology, European Journal of Political Research, Vol. 17, No. 5, 1989.
Jaspal Rusi, Anti-Semitism and anti-Zionism: representation, cognition and everyday talk, Routledge, New York, 2016.
Jevtić Miroljub, Political Science and Religion, Politics and religion journal, Vol. 1, No. 1, 2007.
Jikeli Günther, Explaining the Discrepancy of Antisemitic Acts and Attitudes in 21st Century France, Contemporary Jewry, Vol. 37, No. 2, 2017.
Judaken Jonathan, So what’s new? Rethinking the ‘new antisemitism’in a global age, Patterns of Prejudice, Vol. 42, No. 4-5, 2008.
Kantor Center, accessed May 13, 2018, http://kantorcenter.tau.ac.il/sites/default/files/Doch_full_2018_220418.pdf.
Kaplan Edward H, Charles A. Small, Anti-Israel Sentiment Predicts Anti-Semitismin Europe, Journal of Conflict Resolution, Vol. 50, No. 4, 2006.
Kempf Wilhelm, Anti-Semitism and criticism of Israel: A methodological challenge for peace research, Journal for the study of antisemitism, Vol. 4, No. 2, 2012.
Kempf Wilhelm, Anti-Semitism and criticism of Israel : Methodology and results of the ASCI survey, Conflict & Communication, Vol. 14, No. 1, 2015.
King Ryan D, Melissa F. Weiner, Group Position, Collective Threat, and American Anti-Semitism, Social Problems Vol. 54, No. 1, 2007.
Klaff Lesley, Anti-Zionist Expression on the UK Campus: Free Speech or Hate Speech?, Jewish Political Studies Review, Vol. 22, No. 3-4, 2010.
Klug Brian, The collective Jew: Israel and the new antisemitism, Patterns of Prejudice, Vol. 37, No. 2, 2003.
Klug Brian, Interrogating ‘new anti-Semitism’, Ethnic & Racial Studies, Vol. 36, No. 3, 2013.
Koren Annette, Leonard Saxe, Eric Fleisch, “Jewish life on campus: From backwater to battleground”, in: American Jewish Year Book 2015, Springer, 2016.
Kosmin Barry A, Ariela Keysar, National demographic survey of American Jewish college students 2014: Anti-Semitism report. Trinity College, 2015, https://digitalrepository.trincoll.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?referer=https://scholar.google.com/&httpsredir=1&article=1133&context=facpub.
Krekó Péter, Back to the Roots: Are Antisemites Still Authoritarians?, Journal for the study of antisemitism, Vol. 4, No. 2, 2012.
Kressel Neil J, Samuel W. Kressel, Trends in the Psychological Study of Contemporary Antisemitism: Conceptual Issues and Empirical Evidence, Basic and Applied Social Psychology, Vol. 38, No. 2, 2016.
Krumpal Ivar, Estimating the prevalence of xenophobia and anti-Semitism in Germany: A comparison of randomized response and direct questioning, Social science research, Vol. 41, No. 6, 2012.
Laqueur Walter, The changing face of anti-Semitism: From ancient times to the present day, Oxford University Press, 2006.
Lesschaeve, Christophe, The predictive power of the left-right self-placement scale for the policy positions of voters and parties, West European Politics, Vol. 40, No. 2, 2017.
Levinson Daniel J, R Nevitt Sanford, A scale for the measurement of anti-Semitism, The journal of psychology, Vol. 17, No. 2, 1944.
Lewis Bernard, Semites and anti-Semites: an inquiry into conflict and prejudice, W.W. Norton & Company, 1999.
Lewis Bernard, The new anti-semitism, The American Scholar, Vol. 75, No. 1, 2006.
Lobont Florin, “Antisemitism and Holocaust Denial in Post-Communist Eastern Europe”, in: The Historiography of the Holocaust, edited by Stone, Dan, London, Palgrave Macmillan, 2004.
Maccoby Hyam, Antisemitism and modernity: innovation and continuity, Psychology Press, 2006.
Marcus Kenneth L, The Definition of Anti-Semitism, Oxford University Press, New York, 2015.
Martire Gregory, Ruth V. Clark, Anti-Semitism in the United States: A study of prejudice in the 1980s, Praeger Publishers, New York, 1982.
Mattila Mikko, Lauri Rapeli, Just sick of it? Health and political trust in Western Europe, European Journal of Political Research, Vol. 57, No. 1, 2018.
Mayhew Matthew J, Nicholas A. Bowman, Alyssa N. Rockenbach, et al, Appreciative Attitudes Toward Jews Among Non-Jewish US College Students, Journal of College Student Development, Vol. 59, No. 1, 2018.
Mendes Philip, “Anti-Semitism and support for Jewish rights: an analysis of socialist attitudes to the Jews”, in: Jews and the Left, London, Palgrave MacMillan, 2014.
Nicholls William, Christian antisemitism: A history of hate, Rowman & Littlefield, Lanham, MD, 1995.
Pargament Kenneth I, Kelly Trevino, Annette Mahoney, et al, They Killed Our Lord: The Perception of Jews as Desecrators of Christianity as a Predictor of Anti-Semitism, Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, Vol. 46, No. 2, 2007.
Peabody Dean, Attitude content and agreement set in scales of authoritarianism, dogmatism, anti-Semitism, and economic conservatism, The Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology Vol. 63, No. 1, 1961.
Pew, “Europe’s Growing Muslim Population,” Chap.: Pew Research Center on Religion and Public Life, 2017.
Piurko Yuval, Shalom H. Schwartz, and Eldad Davidov, Basic personal values and the meaning of left-right political orientations in 20 countries, Political Psychology Vol. 32, No. 4, 2011.
Quinley Harold Earl, Charles Young Glock, Anti-semitism in America, Transaction Publishers, New Brunswick, NJ, 1979.
Raden David, Is Anti-Semitism Currently Part of an Authoritarian Attitude Syndrome?, Political Psychology, Vol. 20, No. 2, 1999.
Rebhun Uzi, Correlates of experiences and perceptions of anti-semitism among jews in the united states, Social science research, Vol. 47, No. 1, 2014.
Rosenfeld Alvin H, ed, Resurgent antisemitism: Global perspectives, Bloomington, IN, Indiana University Press, 2013.
Rosenfeld Alvin H, ed, Deciphering the new antisemitism, Bloomington, IN, Indiana University Press, 2015.
Rubinstein William D, The left, the right and the Jews,Routledge, New York, 2015.
Sacks Jonathan, The politics of hope, Jonathan Cape, London, 1997.
Saxe Leonard, Theodore Sasson, Graham Wright, et al, “Antisemitism on the college campus: Perceptions and realities”, Chap. Waltham, Brandeis University, 2015.
Saxe Leonard, Graham Wright, Shahar Hecht, et al, Hotspots of Antisemitism and Anti-Israel Sentiment on US Campuses, Brandeis University, 2016, http://bir.brandeis.edu/handle/10192/33070.
Selznick Gertrude J, Stephen Steinberg, The tenacity of prejudice: Anti-Semitism in contemporary America, Harper and Row, New York, 1969.
Sidanius Jim, Frederico Pratto, Social dominance: An intergroup theory of social oppression and hierarchy, Cambridge University Press, New York, 1999.
Silva Mario, “Antisemitism and the Global Jihad,” Chap, In: Terrorism Revisited: Islamism, Political Violence and State-Sponsorship, edited by Wolf, Paulo Casaca and Siegfried O, Springer, 2017.
Smith M. Brewster, The Authoritarian Personality: A Re-Review 46 Years Later, Political Psychology, Vol. 18, No. 1, 1997.
Smith Tom W, A review: Actual trends or measurement artifacts? A review of three studies of anti-Semitism, Public Opinion Quarterly, Vol. 57, No. 3, 1993.
Smith Tom W, Anti-semitism in contemporary america: a review, Research in micropolitics, Vol. 5 No. 1, 1996.
Staetsky Daniel J, Antisemitism in contemporary Great Britain: Key findings from the JPR survey of attitudes towards Jews and Israel. Institute for Jewish Policy Research, 2017, http://www.jpr.org.uk/documents/JPR..Antisemitism_in_contemporary_Great_Britain.pdf.
Stember C. Herbert, Marshall Sklare, George Salomon, Jews in the Mind of America, Basic Books, New York, 1966.
Tausch Arno, The New Global Antisemitism: Implications from the 100 Data, Middle east review of international affairs, Vol. 18, No. 3 2014.
Tausch Arno, “The Effects of’Nostra Aetate:’ Comparative Analyses of Catholic Antisemitism More Than Five Decades after the Second Vatican Council”, 2018.
Thompson Willie, The Left In History: Revolution and Reform in Twentieth-Century Politic, Pluto Press, Chicago, 1996.
Thurlow Richard, Authoritarians and populists on the English far right, Patterns of Prejudice, Vol. 10, No. 2, 1976.
Wasfy Jason H, Charles Stewart III, Vijeta Bhambhani, “County community health associations of net voting shift in the 2016 US presidential election,” Chap, In: PloS one, 2017.
Weil Frederick D, The variable effects of education on liberal attitudes: A comparative-historical analysis of anti-semitism using public opinion survey data, American sociological review, Vol. 50, No. 4, 1985.
Weitzman Mark, “Every Sane Thinker Must Be an Anti-Semite: Antisemitism and Holocaust Denial in the Theology of Radical Catholic Traditionalists”, in: Antisemitism Before and Since the Holocaust edited by Herf, Anthony McElligott and Jeffrey, London, Palgrave Macmillan, 2017.
Welch Susan, American opinion toward jews during the nazi era: results from quota sample polling during the 1930s and 1940s, Social science quarterly, Vol. 95 No. 3, 2014.
Wheen, Francis, Karl Marx: a Life, W. W. Norton Company, New York, 2001.
Wilson Thomas C, Cohort and prejudice: whites’attitudes toward blacks, hispanics, jews, and asians, Public Opinion Quarterly, Vol. 60, No. 2, 1996.
Winiewski Mikołaj, Michał Bilewicz, “The emergence of antisemitism in times of rapid social change: survey results from Poland”, in: Antisemitism in an Era of Transition: Genealogies and Impact in Post-communist Poland and Hungary, edited by Guestnet, François and Gwen Jones, New York, Peter Lang, 2014.
Wistrich Robert S, Antisemitism: The longest hatred, Schocken, New York, 1994.
Wistrich Robert S, The Anti-Zionist Mythology of the Left, Israel Journal of Foreign Affairs, Vol. 9, No. 2 2015.
Wodak Ruth, “The Radical Right and Antisemitism”, in: The Oxford Handbook of the Radical Right, edited by Rydgren, Jens, New York, Oxford University Press, 2018.
Wodak Ruth, Michał Krzyżanowski, Right-wing populism in Europe & USA: Contesting politics & discourse beyond ‘Orbanism’ and ‘Trumpism’, Journal of Language and Politics, Vol. 16, No. 4, 2017.
Wright Graham, Michelle Shain, Shahar Hecht, et al, “The Limits of Hostility: Students Report on Antisemitism and anti-Israel sentiment at Four US Universities,” Chap Waltham, Brandeis University, 2017.
Wuthnow Robert, “Anti-semitism and stereotyping”, in: In the eye of the beholder: Contemporary issues in stereotyping, edited by Miller, Arthur G, New York, Praeger Publishers, 1982.
Zick Andreas, Beate Küpper, Andreas Hövermann, Intolerance, Prejudice and Discrimination-A European Report, Friedrich Ebert Stiftung Forum Berlin, Berlin, 2011.