RELIGIOUS DISCRIMINATION IN CHRISTIAN-MAJORITY DEMOCRACIES FROM 1990 TO 2014
This study examines patterns in societal and government-based religious discrimination (SRD and GRD) against 307 religious minorities in 67 Christian-majority democracies using the Religion and State-Minorities round 3 (RASM3) dataset. Despite expectations that all forms of religious discrimination, especially GRD, should be lower in Western liberal democracies, it is, in fact, lower in developing countries. I argue that three factors explain this discrepancy. Economically developed countries have more resources available for discrimination. Western democracies have higher levels of support for religion than Christian-majority developing countries and countries which more strongly support religion are more likely to discriminate against religious minorities. Finally levels of SRD are higher in the West and SRD is posited to be a cause of GRD. Empirical tests support these propositions.
Anderson John, The Catholic Contribution to Democratization’s Third Wave: Altruism, Hegemony, or Self-Interest?, Cambridge Review of International Affairs, Vol. 20, No. 3, 2007.
Appleby R. Scott, The Ambivalence of the Sacred: Religion, Violence, and Reconciliation, Rowman and Littlefield, New York, NY., 2000.
Beit-Hallahmi Benjamin, The Return of Martyrdom: Honour, Death, and Immortality, Totalitarian Movements and Political Religions, Vol. 4, No. 3, 2003.
Berger Peter L., Secularism in Retreat, The National Interest, Winter1996/1997.
Berger Peter L., Faith and Development, Society, Vol. 46, No. 1, 2009.
Bruce Steve, God Is Dead : Secularization in the West, Blackwell, 2002.
Bruce Steve, “Secularization and Politics”, in: Routledge Handbook of Religion and Politics, Jeffrey Haynes (ed.), Routledge, New York, NY, 2009.
Calhoun Craig, “Secularism, Citizenship and the Public Sphere”, in: Rethinking Secularism, Calhoun Craig, Mark Juergensmeyer, Jonathan Van Antwerpen (eds.), Oxford University Press, New York, NY, 2012.
Casanova Jose, The Secular and Secularisms, Social Research, Vol. 76, No. 4, 2009.
Cesari Jocelyne, The Awakening of Muslim Democracy: Religion, Democracy, and the State, Cambridge University Press, New York, NY, 2014.
Crouch Colin, The Quiet Continent: Religion and Politics in Europe, The Political Quarterly, Vol. 71, Supplement 1, 2000.
Demerath N.J. III, Karen S., Straight, Religion, Politics, and the State: Cross-Cultural Observations, Cross Currents, Vol. 47, No. 1, 1997.
Facchini Francois Religion, Law and Development: Islam and Christianity–Why is it in Occident and not in the Orient that Man Invented the Institutions of Religious Freedom?, European Journal of Law and Economy, Vol. 29, No. 1, 2010.
Finke Roger, Origins and Consequences of Religious Restrictions: A Global Overview, Sociology of Religion, Vol. 74, No. 3, 2013.
Finke Roger, Dane R. Mataic, Jonathan Fox, Assessing the Impact of Religious Registration, Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, Vol. 56, no, 4, 2017.
Fox Jonathan, A World Survey of Religion and the State, Cambridge University Press, New York, NY, 2008.
Fox Jonathan, Political Secularism, Religion, and the State: A Time Series Analysis of Worldwide Data, Cambridge University Press, New York, NY, 2015.
Fox Jonathan, The Unfree Exercise of Religion: A World Survey of Religious Discrimination against Religious Minorities, Cambridge University Press, New York, NY, 2016.
Fox Jonathan, A World Survey of Secular-Religious Competition: State Religion Policy from 1990 to 2014, Religion, State & Society, Vol. 47, No. 1, 2019.
Fox Jonathan, Civilizational Clash or Balderdash? The Causes of Religious Discrimination in Western European Christian-Majority Democracies, Review of Faith in International Affairs, Vol. 17, No. 1, 2019.
Fox Jonathan, Yasemin Akbaba, Securitization of Islam and Religious Discrimination: Religious Minorities in Western Democracies, 1990 to 2008, Comparative European Politics, Vol. 13, No. 2, 2015.
Fox Jonathan, Yasemin Akbaba, Restrictions on the Religious Practices of Religious Minorities: A Global Survey, Political Studies, 2014, doi: 10.1111/1467-9248.12141.
Fox Jonathan, Roger Finke, Marie A. Eisenstein, Examining the Causes of Government-Based Discrimination against Minorities in Western Democracies Societal-level Discrimination and Securitization, Comparative European Politics, 2018 doi: 10.1057/s41295-018-0134-1
Fox Jonathan, Roger Finke, Dane R. Mataic, New Data and Measures on Societal Discrimination and Religious Minorities, Interdisciplinary Journal of Research on Religion, Vol. 14, No. 14, 2018.
Froese Paul, After Atheism: An Analysis of Religious Monopolies in the Post-Communist World, Sociology of Religion, Vol. 65 No. 1, 2004.
Gill Anthony, The Political Origins of Religious Liberty, Cambridge University Press, New York, NY, 2008.
Gorski Phillip S., Ates Altinordu, After Secularization, Annual Review of Sociology, Vol. 24, 2008.
Grim Brian J., Roger Finke, The Price of Freedom Denied, Cambridge University Press, New York, NY, 2011.
Halman Loek, Veerle Draulans, How Secular is Europe?, British Journal of Sociology, Vol. 57 No. 2, 2006.
Haynes Jeffrey ed., Routledge Handbook of Religion and Politics, Routledge, New York, NY, 2009.
Haynes Jeffrey, Religion in Global Politics, Longman, New York, NY, 1998.
Haynes Jeffrey, Religion, Secularisation, and Politics: A Postmodern Conspectus, Third World Quarterly, Vol. 18 No. 4, 1997.
Hefner Robert H., Public Islam and the Problem of Democratization Sociology of Religion, Vol. 62, No. 4, 2001.
Huntington Samuel P., The Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of the World Order, Simon and Schuster, New York, NY, 1996.
Hurd Elizabeth S., The Politics of Secularism in International Relations, Princeton University Press, Princeton NJ, 2007.
Imboden William, “Religion and International Relations: How Should Policymakers Think about Religion?”, in: Religion and International Relations: A Primer for Research, Michael C. Desch, Daniel Philpott (eds.), Mellon Initiative on Religion Across the Disciplines, Notre Dame University, 2013.
Kaplan Edward H., Charles A. Small, Anti-Israel Sentiment Predicts AntiSemitism in Europe, Journal of Conflict Resolution, Vol. 50 No. 4, 2006.
Kars B. Kaspersen, Johannes Lindvall, Why No Religious Politics? The Secularization of Poor Relief and Primary Education in Denmark and Sweden, Archives of European Sociology, Vol. 49, No. 1, 2008.
Kuhle Lene, Concluding Remarks on Religion and State in the Nordic Countries, Nordic Journal of Religion and Society, Vol. 24, No. 2, 2011.
Marquand, D and R. L. Nettle, Forward The Political Quarterly, Vol. 71, Supplement 1, 2000.
Martin David A., A General Theory of Secularization, Blackwell, Oxford, UK, 1978.
Norris Pippa, Ronald Inglehart, Sacred and Secular: Religion and Politics Worldwide, Cambridge University Press, New York, NY, 2004.
Philpott Daniel, Explaining the Political Ambivalence of Religion, American Political Science Review, Vol. 101, No. 3, 2007.
Sarkissian Ani, The Varieties of Religious Repression: Why Governments Restrict Religion, Oxford University Press, New York, NY, 2015.
Smith Anthony D., The Sacred Dimension of Nationalism Millennium, Vol. 29 No. 3, 2000.
Stark Rodney, One True God, Historical Consequences of Monotheism, Princeton University Press, Princeton NJ, 2001.
Stark Rodney, For the Glory of God, Princeton University Press, Princeton NJ, 2003.
Stark Rodney, Roger Finke, Acts of Faith: Explaining the Human Side of Religion, University of California Press, Berkeley, CA, 2000.
Stepan Alfred, Religion, Democracy, and the ‘Twin Tolerations’, Journal of Democracy, Vol. 11, No. 4, 2000.
Taylor Charles, A Secular Age, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 2007.
Tibi Bassam, Post-Bipolar Disorder in Crisis: The Challenge of Politicized Islam, Millennium, Vol. 29 No. 4, 2000.
Voicu Malina, Religion and Gender Across Europe, Social Compass, Vol. 56, No. 2, 2009.
Wald Kenneth D., Religion and Politics in the United States, St. Martins, New York, NY, 1987.
Woodbury Robert D., Timothy S. Shaw, “Christianity and Democracy: The Pioneering Protestants”, in: Religion and Foreign Affairs: Essential Readings, Dennis R. Hoover, Douglas M. Johnston (eds.), Baylor University Press, Waco, Tx, 2012.
Copyright (c) 2019 Jonathan Fox
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.